March 2014 (No. 70)

Editor: Terence K. Huwe
Contributors: Marcy Whitebook, Stefanie Kalmin, Janice Kimball, Jenifer MacGillvary, and Myra Armstrong.

In This Issue:

Especially Recommended:

IRLE Colloquium Series

IRLE News and Events
IRLE Colloquium Series
Report: Offshoring and Outsourcing a Mixed Bag for American Jobs, Wages
Seth Holmes' Recent Book on Migrant Labor Distributed to Policy Makers
Recent IRLE Working Papers
Industrial Relations:  A Journal of Economy and Society:  Volume 53, Issue 1

IRLE Programs
The Labor Center
California Public Employee Relations
Center for the Study of Child Care Employment
Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment Library

Campus News and Events
UC Berkeley Events


IRLE News and Events

IRLE Colloquium Series

All events are held in the Large Conference Room at 2521 Channing Way, unless otherwise noted.
A light lunch is served.

To attend an event: Please RSVP to Myra Armstrong,

Philippe Pochet

Monday, March 3, 2014 | 12 PM – 1PM
The State of Unions in the European Union
Philippe Pochet, European Trade Union Institute (ETUI)


Annette Bernhardt

Monday, March 17, 2014 | 12 PM – 1PM
Labor Standards and the Reorganization of Work: Gaps in Data and Research
Annette Bernhardt, Visiting Researcher, IRLE; Visiting Professor, Sociology


Richard Freeman

Friday, March 21, 2014 | 12 PM – 1:30PM | 648 Evans Hall
What Do China's Government-run Unions Do?
Richard Freeman, Professor, Economics, Harvard University, NBER, Director


Eileen Appelbaum Rosemary Batt

Monday, March 31, 2014 | 12 PM – 1PM
Private Equity at Work: When Wall Street Manages Main Street
Eileen Appelbaum, Center for Economic Policy Research, Washington, D.C.
Rosemary Batt, ILR Cornell University


Richard Locke

Monday, April 4, 2014 | 12 PM – 1PM
The Promise and Limits of Private Power: Promoting Labor Standards in a Global Economy
Richard Locke, Department of Political Science MIT, (Co-sponsored with Nicholas Ziegler, Political Science, UCB)


Olivier Godechot

Monday, April 21 , 2014 | 12 PM – 1PM
The Working Rich: Wages, Bonuses and Appropriation of Profit in the Financial Industry
Olivier Godechot, Max Planck Sciences(MaxPo), France


ReportReport: Offshoring and Outsourcing a Mixed Bag for American Jobs, Wages

A new study that was conducted Clair Brown and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers finds that the practices of outsourcing and offshoring jobs appear to have both positive and negative effects on American jobs and wages.

The pilot study, funded by the National Science Foundation, provides the first representative and internationally comparable evidence of the domestic and international sourcing practices of U.S. private and public sector organizations. Its coauthors, UC Berkeley economics professor Clair Brown, and Tim Sturgeon, a senior research affiliate with MIT's Industrial Performance Center, found that a near majority of employers in the United States outsource work to contractors and suppliers within the country, and about a quarter of U.S. companies offshore work to other countries.

The researchers found that the actual share of business costs for domestic outsourcing and international sourcing in the study year (2010) was, on average, quite modest, but they also saw significant differences across firms of different sizes and in different sectors.

» Read the Full Press Release
» Read the paper PDF



Seth Holmes' Book on Migrant Labor Sent to Congress, the White House

Seth Holmes' (Public Health) recent publication, Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies has been distributed to members of Congress and the White House. This effort has been undertaken by immigrant labor groups and artists, acting on their own volition. 

» Read the Press Release PDF


Recent Working Papers

Papers are available on the IRLE Web and in the eScholarship Repository. The IRLE version is the copy of record.

IRLE Working Paper Series

Scraping By: Income and Program Participation after the Loss of Extended Unemployment Benefits PDF
Jesse Rothstein and Robert G. Valletta
Working Paper No. 101-14
February 2014

Labor Standards and the Reorganization of Work: Gaps in Data and Research PDF
Annette Bernhardt
Working Paper No. 100-14
January 2014

The 2010 National Organizations Survey: Examining the Relationships Between Job Quality and the Domestic and International Sourcing of Business Functions by United States Organizations PDF
Clair Brown, Timothy Sturgeon, and Connor Cole
Working Paper No. 156-13
December 2013

Waiting for Change: Is it Time to Increase the $2.13 Subminimum Wage? PDF
Sylvia A. Allegretto
Working Paper No. 155-13
December 2013



Industrial Relations:  A Journal of Economy and Society
Volume 53, Issue 1

The Journal is available in the Library and online in the Wiley Online Library (subscription required):

Unions, Wage Gaps, and Wage Dispersion: New Evidence from the Americas

Fernando Rios-Avila and Barry T. Hirsch
Using a common methodology, the effects of unions on wage levels and wage dispersion are estimated for two neighboring countries, Bolivia and Chile, and for the United States. The analysis shows that unions have broadly similar effects on the wage distribution within these three economies. The findings suggest that the political economy of unions, coupled with market constraints on labor costs, produce commonality in union wage effects that transcend other economic and institutional differences.

Is Occupational Injury Risk Higher at New Firms?

Seth A. Seabury, John Mendeloff and Frank Neuhauser
This paper studies whether newly created firms have higher injury rates than established firms. We use data on a large sample of single-establishment firms in Pennsylvania from 2001–2005 to examine the relationship between firm age and the risk of lost workday injuries. Using the full set of firms, there appears to be little overall correlation between firm age and risk. If anything, newer firms appear less likely to have lost workday injuries. When we condition on having at least one injury reported in 2000, however, we find that in later years the injury risk of firms declines with age. This pattern is consistent with systematic underreporting of injuries by new firms.

The Plateau in U.S. Women's Labor Force Participation: A Cohort Analysis

Jin Young Lee
After going up steadily for the last century, the female labor force participation (FLFP) rate in the United States suddenly leveled off in the early 1990s. Using March Current Population Survey data, I find that the FLFP stopped rising for birth cohorts from the 1950s on. My shift-share analyses show that both the plateau and the earlier upward trend in FLFP appeared within almost every category broken down by education, marital status, and child-rearing.

Temporary Help Work: Earnings, Wages, and Multiple Job Holding

Sarah Hamersma, Carolyn Heinrich and Peter Mueser
Temporary help services (THS) employment has been growing in size, particularly among disadvantaged workers. An extended policy debate focuses on the low earnings, limited benefits, and insecurity that such jobs appear to provide. We investigate the earnings and wage differentials observed between THS and other jobs in a sample of disadvantaged workers. We find lower quarterly earnings at THS jobs but a $1 per hour wage premium. We reconcile these findings in terms of the shorter duration and lower hours worked at THS jobs. We interpret the premium as a compensating wage differential.

Wage Discrimination Against Workers with Sensory Disabilities

Marjorie L. Baldwin and Chung Choe
We link information on occupation-specific job demands to data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide first-ever estimates of wage discrimination against workers with sensory disabilities. Estimates are derived from wage models that control for job demands related to sensory abilities, and interactions between job demands and workers' sensory limitations. Results indicate approximately one third (one tenth) of the male (female) disability-related wage differential is potentially attributed to discrimination. The results differ from estimates of discrimination against workers with physical disabilities obtained with similar methods, underscoring the importance of accounting for heterogeneity of the disabled population in discrimination studies.

Indicative and Updated Estimates of the Collective Bargaining Premium in Germany

John Addison, Paulino Teixeira, Katalin Evers and Lutz Bellmann
This study provides updated evidence on the union contract differential in Germany using establishment-wide wage data and two estimation strategies. It provides pairwise estimates of the union differential based on separate samples of collective bargaining leavers and joiners vis-à-vis the corresponding counterfactual groups. We report that average wages increase by 3 to 3.5 percent after entering into a collective agreement and decrease by 3 to 4 percent after abandoning a collective agreement. Excluding establishments that experience mass layoffs does not significantly influence these net findings, although such establishments record wage losses—statistically insignificant for joiners but up to 10 percent in the case of leavers, as compared with the counterfactuals. The backdrop to these new indicative estimates, which are properly conditioned on establishment size and industry affiliation, inter alia, is one of wage stagnation and continuing union decline.

IRLE Program News

The Labor Center

New Report

Realizing the Dream for Californians Eligible for DACA: Demographics and Health Coverage
February 2014, by Claire D. Brindis, Max W. Hadler, Ken Jacobs, Laurel Lucia, Nadereh Pourat, Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Rachel Siemons and Efrain Talamantes

This report describes the demographics and health care coverage of the estimated 300,000 young California immigrants who are eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). While these teens and young adults are excluded from federal Affordable Care Act health insurance options, the authors find that up to 125,000 may be eligible for Medi-Cal under state policy, based on an analysis of California Health Interview Survey data. In this report, we also present an overview of the health programs available, discuss the impact the DACA program has had on coverage, and present potential policy solutions that would expand coverage for these Californians.


2014 Labor Summer Internship Program
The UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education (Labor Center), along with co-sponsor UC Davis Center for Regional Change, offers an exciting opportunity for UC students to become summer interns with cutting-edge unions and community-based organizations in Northern and possibly Central California. The Labor Summer Internship Program is an innovative PAID internship for UC graduate and undergraduate students, providing opportunities to learn from and work with unions and labor organizations on issues vital to California's working people.

Application to host an intern is due March 3, 2014
Application for internship is due March 10, 2014
Visit for more information


The Affordable Care Act and California
Friday, March 14, 2014, 4:00 - 5:30 PM
UC Berkeley Labor Center
2521 Channing Way #5555
Sponsored by: The Scholars Strategy Network (SSN) and the Labor Center

Larry Jacobs - University of Minnesota, Political Science and Public Policy
Anthony Wright - Health Access California
Ken Jacobs - UC Berkeley Labor Center
Margaret Weir - UC Berkeley, Sociology and Political Science
Charlie Eaton - UC Berkeley, Sociology
Lisa Aliferis (moderator)- KQED, State of Health blog

This event is free and open to the public. A question and answer session will follow the panel discussion.


Report: 125,000 immigrants given deferred action eligible for Medi-Cal
Los Angeles Times, February 24, 2014

Local Policies That Work for Workers
New York Times Economix, February 24, 2014

Companies at center of debate on wages
The Columbus Dispatch, February 23, 2014

A $10.10 Minimum Wage Would Make A DVD At Walmart Cost One Cent More
Think Progress, February 21, 2014

Wal-Mart Poised for Henry Ford Moment Amid Minimum Wage Debate
Bloomberg, February 20, 2014

Why backing the minimum wage hike makes sense — for Wal-Mart
The Washington Post Wonkblog, February 19, 2014

Why a Minimum Wage Hike Could Be Good for Wal-Mart
The Atlantic, February 20, 2014

Low-Wage Nation
Seattle Weekly News, February 18, 2014

For $1 per Big Mac, a truly livable salary for millions
Boston Globe, February 18, 2014

Activists Push for Raising Minimum Wage in Oakland to $12.25 an Hour
East Bay Express, February 17, 2014

A Reader Asks: If I Am On COBRA, Do I Have To Buy A New Marketplace Plan?
Washington Post, February 14, 2014

Firms can protect against catastrophic medical costs
San Francisco Chronicle, February 14, 2014

The minimum wage fight: From San Francisco to de Blasio's New York
Reuters, February 11, 2014

Group Wants To Raise Oakland Minimum Wage To Highest In Nation
KCBS, February 10, 2014

When Mandates Work
Center for Economic and Policy Research, February 9, 2014

Campaign underway to lift Oakland's minimum wage
Contra Costa Times, February 9, 2014

New Book Lauds San Francisco's Progressive Worker Benefits
Beyond Chron, February 6, 2014

Raiderette wages lawsuit prompts Labor Dept. investigation
San Francisco Chronicle, January 30, 2014

Why McDonald's Should Focus on Less Beef and Higher Wages
The Guardian, January 29, 2014

S.F. praised as model for U.S. on increasing minimum wage
San Francisco Chronicle, January 28, 2014

San Francisco's raise-the-pay experiment
San Francisco Chronicle, January 28, 2014

Target Cuts Health Care. For Some, It's Not A Bad Thing
Huffington Post, January 28, 2014

Commentary by Ken Jacobs on President Obama's 2014 State of the Union Address Audio
KPFA, January 28, 2014

Proposal to Raise Tip Wages Resisted
NY Times, January 26, 2014

Occupy the minimum wage: will young people restore the strength of unions?
The Guardian, January 26, 2014

A Daring New Approach to the Fight for a Fairer Economy
Moyers & Company, January 24, 2014

EXCERPT: Mandates Work: Raising Labor Standards at the Local Level
The Huffington Post Blog, January 23, 2014

Pension Cutters Bet Against Prosperity
Capital & Main, January 22, 2014

San Francisco's Higher Minimum Wage Hasn't Hurt the Economy
Businessweek, January 22, 2014

Advocates for Workers Raise the Ire of Business
New York Times, January 16, 2014

Without Unemployment Benefits Extension, Blacks Continue to Feel Pain
Atlanta Black Star, January 15, 2014

Bill O'Reilly Blesses Minimum Wage Hike
San Francisco Chronicle, January 15, 2014

Saru Jayaraman: Raising the Restaurant Minimum Wage Video
The Atlantic Presents: The Shriver Report LIVE, January 15, 2014

Monks, Belgian Cafe, Grace Tavern make "ethical labor" list
Philadelphia Business Journal, January 15, 2014

Business Matters: IMF global economic report Audio
BBC World Service – World Business Report, January 14, 2014

Raise Minimum Wages, Say Some on the Right
San Francisco Chronicle, January 12, 2014


California Public Employee Relations

CPER Pocket GuidesCPER is pleased to announce a new edition:

Pocket Guide to Workers' Compensation in California: Public and Private Sectors (2nd edition, 2014) by Juliann Sum, updated by John Holstedt and Eric Ledger. 

Reflecting the major changes to the law in 2013, this edition provides an overview of workers' compensation law and procedure, a brief history of the law, and a summary of citations to applicable statutes, regulations, and precedent cases.

In April, CPER will publish a new edition of its Pocket Guide to the Meyers-Milias-Brown Act.

And, as public school layoff season approaches, CPER has updated all titles in our layoff guide series:

Pocket Guide to Layoff Rules Affecting Certificated Employees (February 2014), by Dale Brodsky
Pocket Guide to Layoff Rules Affecting Classified Employees (February 2014), by Carol Vendrillo
Pocket Guide to Layoff Rules Affecting Community College Faculty (February 2014), by Carmen Plaza de Jennings and Jayne Benz Chipman.

All guides in the Pocket Guide series are described and can be ordered at

Center for the Study of Child Care Employment

The Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE), by invitation, of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families is presenting a webinar , Early Childhood Higher Education Inventory: Taking Stock of the States. States across the country are working to establish coordinated early childhood professional preparation and development systems that are responsive to new and ongoing developments in the field. The ability to understand a State's early childhood higher education offerings and to answer key policy questions is critical for policymakers, funders, advocates, and other stakeholders as they engage in this process. CSCCE will present its research on the Early Childhood Higher Education Inventory March 4th.

CSCCE Director, Marcy Whitebook is presenting at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies on February 28th. She will be participating in a public session for the Committee on the Science of Children Birth to 8: Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success.  The committee is tasked with conducting a study and preparing a consensus report on how the science of children's health, learning and development can inform how we prepare a workforce to seamlessly support children from birth through age 8.

Finally, CSCCE is pleased to announce that on December 9th 2013, Olivia Medina joined our staff as an Assistant III.  Previously, she worked at the San Luis Obispo County Jail as an administrative assistant in the Medical Clinic. She received her B.A.s in both History and Anthropology from the University of California, Irvine. Olivia will be in charge of office management and assist with research projects.

The New York Times published Marcy Whitebook's letter to the editor, in response to a spate of op-eds about early care and education. In the letter, Dr. Whitebook raises the issue of compensation and poverty facing early educators.

CSCCE is now on Twitter! Find us at


Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy

Good Jobs, Green Jobs Conference
Megan Emiko Scott presented at the BlueGreen Alliance's annual Good Jobs, Green Jobs conference in Washington, DC. She discussed California's implementation efforts to date for Proposition 39, a voter-approved measure that allocates up to $2.5 billion over five years for energy efficiency and clean energy projects in California's K-12 public schools and community colleges. The Don Vial Center is working with the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency and the California Energy Commission to provide research and technical assistance to implement the jobs and workforce reporting requirements for Proposition 39-funded projects.

Building Workforce Partnerships Conference
Carol Zabin presented at the Building Workforce Partnerships conference sponsored by the California Labor Federation's Workforce and Economic Development Program. She described California's major clean energy investments and presented jobs and workforce development recommendations developed by the Green Collar Jobs Council (GCJC) that should be implemented as part of these investments.Through her role as chair of the GCJC, and appointee to the California Workforce Investment Board, Carol led the GCJC's work to develop jobs and workforce development program elements that should be implemented for state investments in energy efficiency, clean energy and carbon reduction. The GCJC recommends that state agencies and decision makers adopt and implement these program elements to support successful implementation of state programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure the best possible jobs and workforce development outcomes from these public investments.


Institute for Research on Labor and Employment Library

Recent Acquisitions Now on Display
Using the new Library of Congress Resource Description and Access system (RDA), the Library processed a larger than usual roster of new books during the winter of 2014. The new titles are on display in the Library Commons, and there is a print bibliography available in the entry area. The bibliography will also be available electronically in early March, at

California Digital Library Unveils Major Online Chicano History Collection
"¡Viva la Causa!: Herman Baca Collection reveals 50 years of Chicano community activism"
By Sherri Berger, CDL and Marlayna Christensen, UC San Diegobaca_at_mic
Approximately 40,000 pages of textual and visual material documenting Chicano community activism in San Diego are now freely available on the Online Archive of California (OAC) and Calisphere. The material was digitized from the Herman Baca Papers (1964-2006), a large and important collection held by Mandeville Special Collections at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). This collection is available to the entire university community and provides valuable insight into the chicano experience. 
Visit the collection:



Center for Chinese Studies: Institute of East Asian Studies

March 10, 2014 | 4:00 p.m.
Institute of East Asian Studies
2223 Fulton St, 6th Floor
"China Worker Wellness Project: Participatory Design to Improve the Lives of Chinese Migrant Workers in Urban Economic Zones"
Linda Neuhauser, Clinical Professor, Public Health, University of California, Berkeley

Center for Effective Global Action

March 7, 2014 | 9:00am - 5:00pm
Revealing the Demand for Pro-poor Innovations Conference
Fisher Colloquium Room
Georgetown University
Washington, DC 

Center for Latin American Studies

March 5, 2014 | 7:00pm
Film Screening and Director's Talk: Cesar Chavez
Directed by Diego Luna (United States, 2014)

Demography Department

March 5, 2014
"Faculty Retirement and Mortality: The University of California Voluntary Early Retirement Incentive Programs" : Mark Borgschulte, Department of Economics, UC Berkeley

Brown Bag Seminars
Wednesdays | 12pm – 1pm
2232 Piedmont Avenue

Economics Department


Economics 231, Public Finance Seminar
639 Evans Hall
Mondays | 2-4pm

March 4, 2014
"Research clusters: How public subsidies matter?" Emmanuelle Tagourdeau, Paris School of Economics

March 19, 2014
"Promoting Transparency in Social Science Research" Edward Miguel, University of California at Berkeley

Economics 251, Labor Economics Seminar
648 Evans Hall
Thursdays | 2-4pm

March 13, 2014
"Field of study, earnings, and self-selection" Magne Mogstad, University of Chicago

Center for Labor Economics, Labor Lunch Series
648 Evans Hall
Fridays | 12-1pm

March 7, 2014
"Winning versus Losing: How Important are Reservation Wages for Unemployment Duration?" Kathrin Degen, University of Lausanne

March 21, 2014
"What Do China's Government-run Unions Do?" Richard Freeman, Harvard University

Sociology Departmental Colloquium Series

402 Barrows Hall, Blumer Room
Mondays | 2:00 - 3:30 PM

March 17, 2014
"Worker Identities In a New Era of Information" Kim Voss, UC Berkeley Sociology

Institute for the Study for Societal Issues

March 14, 2014 | 4:00-5:30pm
Wildavsky Conference Room, ISSI, 2538 Channing Way
ISSI Colloquia Speaker Series:
"Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies: Migrant Farmworkers in the United States"
Seth Holmes, Public Health and Medical Anthropology, UC Berkeley

March 20, 2014
Shorb House Conference Room, 2547 Channing Way
Center for Latino Policy Research Speaker Series:
"A Demographic Portrait of the Nation's Unauthorized Immigrant Population"
Mark Hugo López, Director of Hispanic Research, Pew Research Center