May-June 2015 (No. 79)

Editor: Terence K. Huwe
Contributors: Stefanie Kalmin, Janice Kimball, Jenifer MacGillvary, Myra Armstrong, Ferheen Abbasi and Megan Emiko Scott

Special Issue: The Year in Review

IRLE News and Events
Director’s Letter: Michael Reich
Jesse Rothstein Appointed as IRLE’s Next Director
IRLE Colloquium Series, 2014-15
Special Events and Conferences
New Editor Named for Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society, July 2015
IRLE Working Paper Series, 2014-15

IRLE Program News:
The Labor Center
California Public Employee Relations
Center for the Study of Child Care Employment
Center for Wage and Employment Dynamics
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment Library
Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy


IRLE News and Events

Director's Letter

Michael Reich

Dear Friends of IRLE,

As is customary, this IRLE eNews' final issue of the academic year includes a review of our accomplishments over the past year. This issue of the eNews also will be my final letter to you as Director of IRLE. My term ends on June 30, 2015.

As most of you know, I will be succeeded by Jesse Rothstein, Professor of Economics and Public Policy. Jesse has been deeply engaged with IRLE this past year and also last year as acting director while I was on leave. Jesse is an internationally-recognized labor economist who has also had experience in policy circles. I know that Jesse will lead IRLE forward with abundant energy, creativity, and clear leadership. IRLE is most fortunate that he has agreed to serve.

Jesse will take the helm at a most opportune moment, given the success of IRLE's many ventures. The 2014-15 academic year in particular has been marked by significant advances in virtually all of IRLE's programs.

IRLE, together with the Center for Labor Research and Education and the Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics, continued to publish ground-breaking minimum wage studies, including studies of prospective minimum wage impacts in Los Angeles, Oakland, San Francisco and, San Diego. Our research has been influential among policy makers and provided key contributions to the lively debate about the impact and effectiveness of minimum wage policies. Many cities and jurisdictions have asked for our advice and have cited our work as they have enacted minimum wage increases. Most recently, the City of Los Angeles asked IRLE to produce a report assessing the impact of an increase in the minimum wage on the Los Angeles economy.

The Labor Center has also continued to publish numerous studies of health care and employment. It has established itself as a leading voice in interpreting the policy impacts of changes in the health care delivery system.  And its studies on the public costs of low wages have once again received much public attention.

Our collective efforts in assessing these and other crucial policy issues have dramatically increased the profile of IRLE's research. As a result we have strengthened our relations with the California legislature as well as the federal government and other state governments. This is welcome not only for IRLE but also for the University of California as a whole.

IRLE's programs have thrived as well. The Labor Center is growing, adding new specialists and increasing its community service programs. The Center for the Study Child Care Employment has received new funding, enabling it to enlarge its staff and broaden its research and policy analysis. California Public Employee Relations retains its stature as the definitive source for information on public sector employment issues, and its “Pocket Guide” series has enjoyed robust sales.

The Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy has also received new funding, which is most welcome given the accelerating demand for policy analysis that has been created by California's commitment to reducing its carbon footprint.

Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society continues to grow, maintaining its status as a top-ranked journal its field. We thank Steven Raphael, Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School, for his excellent and long service as editor of the journal. And we welcome Chris Riddell, Professor of Labor Economics at Cornell, as the new editor. In October the journal will publish a special issue on the Fair Labor Standards Act, co-edited by myself and Jesse Rothstein. This issue includes a preface by Secretary of Labor Perez. The full table of contents will appear shortly on our web site.

The IRLE Library continues to oversee IRLE's overall digital publishing workflow as well as its heavily-trafficked Web site, which generates millions of downloads each year. Library staff also do outreach in social media such as Twitter and Facebook. During the past year our “followers” on Twitter tripled to 346, with the majority of the followers being associated with leading peer institutions. News of our colloquia and new research reports generate near-immediate increase in Web download, often numbering in the thousands within hours of publication.

I am also very pleased that the Library staff has joined incoming director Jesse Rothstein in an exciting new initiative to revitalize the entire first floor of the Institute. This initiative will increase flexible space for IRLE's growth while simultaneously making Library collections more secure.

Lastly, I will continue my long association with the Institute as Chair of the Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics. I look forward to devoting myself more fully to my research on wage policies, even as I remain active within the IRLE community.

I would like to thank all of our affiliated faculty and academic staff, our hard-working support staff, and extended community of friends for making it possible for IRLE to thrive.

Michael Reich, Professor of Economics and Director, IRLE

Jesse Rothstein Appointed as IRLE's Next Director

Jesse Rothstein

IRLE is very pleased to announce that Jesse Rothstein will be IRLE's next director, effective July 1, 2015.

Prof. Rothstein is associate professor of public policy and economics at the University of California, Berkeley, with affiliations in the Department of Economics and the Goldman School of Public Policy. He previously served as IRLE's Acting Director during 2013-14 and as the Associate Director during 2014-15. He also previously served as Chief Economist at the U.S. Department of Labor and as Senior Economist with the Council of Economic Advisers, Executive Office of the President, both in the Obama Administration.

Prof. Rothstein's research focuses on education policy and on the labor market. His recent work includes studies of teacher quality and of the effects of Unemployment Insurance during the Great Recession. His work has been published in leading journals in economics, public policy, education, and law.

He received a Ph.D. in economics and a Masters in Public Policy, both from the University of California, Berkeley, and an A.B. from Harvard. He is a member of the editorial boards of the American Economic Review and of Industrial Relations. He was named the John T. Dunlop Outstanding Scholar by the Labor and Employment Relations Association in 2011. He is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and a fellow of the National Education Policy Center, the CESifo Research Network, and the IZA.

IRLE Colloquium Series

The series included a number of distinguished visitors as well as many of IRLE’s faculty affiliates. Events were held at 2521 Channing Way unless otherwise noted.

Fall 2014

Peter PhilipsMonday, October 13, 2014
Prevailing wage laws in construction: wage mandates as a means of promoting collective bargaining
Peter Philips, Professor, Economics, University of Utah

Christopher WaltersMonday, October 27, 2014
Inputs in the Production of Early Childhood Human Capital: Evidence from Head Start
Christopher Walters, Assistant Professor, Economics


Till von WachterMonday, November 3, 2014
Long-Term Nonemployment and Job Displacement
Till von Wachter, Economics, UCLA


Alexander GelberMonday, November 17, 2014
The Effects of Youth Employment: Evidence from New York City Summer Youth Employment Program Lotteries
Alexander Gelber, Assistant Professor, Goldman School of Public Policy


Marcy WhitebookMonday, December 1, 2014
Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The National Child Care Staffing Study 25 Years Later
Marcy Whitebook, Director, Senior Researcher, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE)

Jérôme PélisseMonday, December 15, 2014
Local Industrial Relations in France
Jérôme Pélisse, Professor, Assistant Professor, Sociology, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines



Spring 2015

Peter PhilipsMonday, January 26, 2015
The Impact of Illness Prevention Policies on Statewide Injury Rates in U.S. Construction
Peter Philips, Professor, Economics, University of Utah; IRLE Visiting Scholar

Jerome GautieMonday, February 9, 2015
Rethinking the Sources of Inequality of Income and Wealth
Joe Stiglitz, American economist, Professor at Columbia University. He is a recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and the John Bates Clark Medal.


Damon SilversMonday, February 9, 2015
Raising Wages— Why Our Nation's Future Depends on Rebuilding Workers' Bargaining Power
Damon Silvers, Director of Policy and Special Counsel for the AFL-CIO
Co-sponsored with the Center for Labor Research and Education

Ming LeungMonday, February 23, 2015
For love or money? Gender differences in how one approaches getting a job
Ming Leung, Assitant Professor, Haas

Bob KingMonday, March 9, 2015
Building Worker Power
Bob King, Former President, UAW; Visiting Researcher IRLE and Center for Latin American Studies


Evan TottyMonday, March 30, 2015
The Effect of Minimum Wages on Employment: A Factor Model Approach
Evan Totty, Doctoral student, Economics, Purdue University

Jerome GautieMonday, April 6, 2015
Sixty-five Years of National Minimum Wage: Assessing the French Experience
Jerome Gautie, Visiting Scholar, Professor of Economics at University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France


Cristina BanksMonday, April 13, 2015
How an Interdisciplinary View of Healthy Workplaces is Greater than the Sum of the Parts
Cristina Banks, Senior Lecturer, Haas School of Business, Management of Organizations Group (MORS)


Seth HolmesMonday, April 20, 2015
Migrant Farmworker Injury: Slow Death and Statistical Events
Seth Holmes, School of Public Health, UC Berkeley



Special Events and Conferences

Fair Wages ConferenceMonday, February 24, 2015
Are Fair Wages Common Sense: Exploring Corporate Living Wage Programs
Paul Rice, CEO of Fair Trade USA
Roger McElrath, Associate Director of BSR
Jeff Denby, Co-Founder and CCO of PACT
Moderator: Robert Strand, CRB Executive Director
Co-sponsored with the Center for Responsible Business

Description: H&M has implemented a plan with a stated goal to achieve a “fair living wage” for 850,000 textile works by 2018. IKEA recently announced a new living wage policy for its U.S. employees based on a living wage calculator developed by a professor at MIT. Other companies such as Novartis, Gap, and Trader Joe’s, have similar programs in place. Civil society organizations also support programs that hold companies accountable and improve workers’ lives. In this session we will hear from senior executives at Fair Trade USA and BSR as we explore how managers have implemented living wage programs, and the business challenges and successes they have encountered along the way.

Sustainability ConferenceMonday, March 5, 2015
Sustainability Conference: “Reducing Inequality in a Sustainable World”
Keynote Speaker: Sivan Kartha, Stockholm Environment Institute
Co-sponsored with the UC Berkeley Institute of Urban and Regional Development

Description: As the global movement for sustainability is gaining steam, inequality continues growing rapidly. How can we slow inequality and poverty while increasing the sustainability of our living patterns and economies? This conference brings together economists, sociologists, ecologists, anthropologists, planners, and policymakers to outline the issues and discuss potential solutions. Three panels address sustainability and inequality from the perspective of cities and regions, measurement, and global growth. The goal of the conference is not just to expose the hard tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and economic growth and equity, but also to offer the possibility of transformation via alternative frameworks for measurement and action.

IRLE Publishes a Wage Study for the City of Los Angeles

ReportIn April 2015 IRLE researchers have published the following report, which was presented to the Los Angeles City Council:

The Proposed Minimum Wage Law for Los Angeles: Economic Impacts and Policy Options PDF

Authors: Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry (With the assistance of Miranda Dietz and Laurel Lucia)

New Editor Named for Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society

Industrial Relations

After several years of service, Steve Raphael (Goldman School of Public Policy) will be stepping down as the editor of Industrial Relations.  IRLE thanks Steve for his outstanding service as editor.

A new editor, Chris Riddell, has been appointed and will assume leadership of the journal during summer 2015. Chris is an Associate Professor at the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University, and an accomplished industrial relations scholar.  He is also the 2013 winner of the John Dunlop award for outstanding contributions to labor and employment research. The award is conferred by the Labor and Employment Relations Association.

Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society: Volume 54, No. 3 Abstracts

Industrial Relations

The Journal is Availabel in the IRLE Library and online in the Wiley Online Library (subscription required).

Volume 54, No. 3, July 2015




A Theory of Dual Job Search and Sex-Based Occupational Clustering
Alan Benson

This paper theorizes and provides evidence for the segregation of men into clustered occupations and women into dispersed occupations in advance of marriage and in anticipation of future colocation problems. Using the Decennial Census, and controlling for occupational characteristics, I find evidence of this general pattern of segregation, and also find that the minority of the highly-educated men and women who depart from this equilibrium experience delayed marriage, higher divorce, and lower earnings. Results are consistent with the theory that marriage and mobility expectations foment a self-fulfilling pattern of occupational segregation with individual departures deterred by earnings and marriage penalties.

Positive Assortative Matching: Evidence from Sports Data
Antonio Filippin And Jan C. Van Ours

It is difficult to establish empirically whether or not there is positive assortative matching in the labor market. We use longitudinal data from the 24-hour Belluno run in which participants are affiliated with teams to study group dynamics in a manner that closely resembles workers accessions to and separations from firms. In our dataset the productivity of the individual agents is measured and we exploit this by investigating the determinants of accessions, separations and assortative matching. We find support for the existence of positive assortative matching, i.e. better runners moving to better teams.

Unionization and Productivity: Evidence from Charter Schools
Cassandra M.D. Hart and Aaron J. Sojourner

This paper studies the relationship between teacher unionization and student achievement. Generally stable patterns of teacher unionization since the 1970s have historically presented challenges in measuring the effects of unionization on educational production. However, the blossoming of the charter school sector in recent decades provides fertile ground for study because while most charters are non-union, teachers at some charters have unionized. Using a generalized difference-in-difference approach combining California union certification data with student achievement data from 2003-2012, we find that, aside from a one-year dip in achievement associated with the unionization process itself, unionization does not affect student achievement.

A Quantitative Assessment of the Effect of First Contract Arbitration on Bargaining Relationships
Bradley R. Weinberg

This article investigates first contract arbitration's (FCA) capacity to foster bargaining relationships and deter misconduct by analyzing its effect on decertifications.  Using Time-Series Cross Sectional (TSCS) analysis with data from nine Canadian provinces over a four decade period, it shows: (1) FCA correlates with 20 to 37 percent fewer decertifications in provinces that have an FCA provision relative to those that do not; (2) of the various types of FCA, the automatic and fault forms have the most robust effect on decertifications while the mediation-arbitration form may have the largest effect on decertifications; and (3) the effect of FCA is heightened in the presence of card-check certification such that the best results for fostering bargaining relationships may be found in the presence of both policies.

The Health Consequences Of Adverse Labor Marker Events: Evidence From Panel Data
Johanna Catherine Maclean, Douglas A. Webber, Michael T. French, and Susan L. Ettner

This study investigates the associations between self-assessed adverse labor market events (experiencing problems with coworkers, employment changes, financial strain) and health.  Longitudinal data are obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.  Our findings suggest problems with coworkers, employment changes, and financial strain are associated with a 3.1 percent (3.3 percent), 0.9 percent (0.6 percent), and 4.5 percent (5.1percent) reduction in mental health among men (women).  Associations are smaller in magnitude and less significant for physical health.

Postgraduate Education and labor Market Outcomes: an Empirical Analysis Using Micro Data from Japan
Masayuki Morikawa

Using a large micro data from Japan, this paper provides evidence on the relationship between postgraduate education and labor market outcomes. According to the analysis, 1) the employment-to-population rates of females and elderly people with postgraduate educations are higher than those with undergraduate educations. 2) The postgraduate wage premium relative to undergraduates is approximately 30–40 percent, which is similar in magnitude for male and female workers. 3) The wage reduction after age 60 is less for workers with a postgraduate education. 4) The private rate of return to postgraduate education exceeds 10 percent.

Working Papers

IRLE Working Paper Series, 2014-15

Working papers may be downloaded from:

Papers from 2015

The Effects of Minimum Wages on Food Stamp Enrollment and Expenditures
Michael Reich and Rachel West
Working Paper No. 112-15, June 2015

Failed Searches: How the choice set of job applicanta affects an employer's likelihood of making an offerPDF
Ming D. Leung
Working Paper No. 111-15, May 2015

The Effects of Minimum Wages on Employment: A Factor Model ApproachPDF
Evan Toty
Working Paper No. 110-15, April 2015

Do Politicians Use Policy to Make Politics? The Case of Public Sector Labor Laws PDF
Sarah F. Anzia and Terry M. Moe
Working Paper No. 109-15, February 2015

Bottle Revolution: Constructing Consumer and Producer Identities in the Craft Beer Industry PDF
Jo-Ellen Pozner, Michaela DeSoucey, and Katarina Sikavica
Working Paper No. 108-15, March 2015

Paying Attention to Misconduct: Differential Reactions to Misconduct After Sarbanes-Oxley PDF
Jo-Ellen Pozner, Aharon Cohen Mohliver, and Celia Moore
Working Paper No. 107-15, February 2015

Making the Most of Diversity: How Collectivism Mutes the Disruptive Effects of Demographic Heterogeneity on Group Performance PDF
Jennifer A. Chatman, Eliot L. Sherman, and Bernadette M. Doerr 
Working Paper No. 106-15, January 2015

Socio-Economic Variation in the Effect of Economic Conditions on Marriage and Non-marital Fertility: Evidence from the Great Recession PDF
Daniel Schneider and Orestes P. Hastings
Working Paper No. 105-15, March 2015

Effects of the Great Recession on the U.S. Agricultural Labor Market PDF
Maoyong Fan, Anita Alves Pena, and Jeffrey M. Perloff
Working Paper No. 104-15, March 2015

For love or money? Gender differences in how one approaches getting a job PDF
Weiyi Ng and Ming D. Leung
Working Paper No. 103-15, February 2015

Migrant Farmworker Injury: Slow Death and Statistical Events
Seth M. Holmes
Working Paper No. 102-15, February 2015

The Effects of Youth Employment: Evidence from New York City Summer Youth Employment Program LotteriesPDF
Alexander Gelber, Adam Isen, and Judd B. Kessler
Working Paper No. 101-15, February 2015

The Effect of Extended Unemployment Insurance Benefits: Evidence from the 2012-2013 Phase-Out PDF
Henry S. Farber, Jesse Rothstein, and Robert G. Valletta
Working Paper No. 100-15, January 2015

Papers from 2014

Evaluating Public Programs with Close Substitutes: The Case of Head Start PDF
Patrick Kline and Christopher Walters
Working Paper No. 123-14, December 2014

Failure at the top: How power undermines collaborative performance PDF
J. Angus D. Hildreth and Cameron Anderson
Working Paper No. 122-14, November 2014

Using a business function framework to examine outsourcing and offshoring by US organizations PDF
Clair Brown, Timothy Sturgeon, and Julia Lane
Working Paper No. 121-14, June 2014

Talent Flight as a Run on the Firm: A Study of Post-Merger Integration at the Dewey-LeBeouf Law Firm PDF
Ming D. Leung and Hayagreeva Rao
Working Paper No. 120-14, November 2014

From Motherhood Penalties to Husband Premia: The New Challenge for Gender Equality and Family Policy, Lessons from Norway PDF
Trond Petersen, Andrew M. Penner, and Geir Høgsnes
Working Paper No. 119-14, November 2014

Bottle Revolution: Constructing Consumer and Producer Identities in the Craft Beer Industry? PDF
Jo-Ellen Pozner, Michaela DeSoucey, and Katarina Sikavica
Working Paper No. 118-14, October 2014

Why Do Fewer Agricultural Workers Migrate Now? PDF
Maoyong Fan, Susan Gabbard, Anita Alves Pena, and Jeffrey M. Perloff
Working Paper No. 117-14, October 2014

National Labor Movements and Transnational Connections: Global Labor’s Evolving Architecture Under Neoliberalism PDF
Peter Evans
Working Paper No. 116-14, September 2014

Shedding Light on Inventors’ Returns to Patents PDF
Domenico Depalo and Sabrina Di Addario
Working Paper No. 115-14, October 2014

An evaluation and explanation of (in)efficiency in higher education institutions in Europe and the U.S. with the application of two-stage semi-parametric DEA PDF
Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz
Working Paper No. 114-14, August 2014

Exploring universities' efficiency differentials between countries in a multi-year perspective: an application of bootstrap DEA and Malmquist index to Italy and Poland, 2001-2011 PDF
Tommaso Agasisti and Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz
Working Paper No. 113-14, June 2014


IRLE Program News

The Labor Center


Maximizing Health Insurance Enrollment through Covered California during Work and Life Transitions
May 2015 | Mary June Flores and Laurel Lucia
Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), California has significantly expanded access to health coverage. Even so, greater enrollment gains can be made by focusing on individuals who may be eligible to enroll in Covered California during Special Enrollment Periods (SEPs). SEPs are narrow windows of time outside Open Enrollment when individuals, under certain qualifying work and life transitions, can sign up for coverage.

The policy brief identifies six groups of individuals who may be eligible for an SEP when they experience a work or life transition: those receiving Unemployment Insurance, those changing jobs, workers in occupations that require state licensure, new Legal Permanent Residents, those who are moving into or within the state, and those entering or graduating college. While members of these groups are at risk of losing health coverage, they are also likely to connect with public and private institutions and agencies that can partner with Covered California to offer information about health care options. We provide recommendations on ways that Covered California can work with the institutions that are likely to be in contact with members of these groups—such as the DMV, state licensure boards, and community colleges—to target outreach, education, and enrollment activities to individuals experiencing transitions.

This policy brief is the third in a series discussing seamless health care coverage for individuals undergoing work or life transitions. The first two reports were published in March 2011 and October 2011.

Accompanying blog post by Mary June Flores: Covered California should Expand Strategies to Enroll Californians in Health Insurance when they Undergo Life and Work Transitions

Low-Wage Work in California: 2014 Chartbook
April 2015 | Annette Bernhardt, Ian Perry and Lindsay Cattell
There were 4.8 million low-wage workers in California in 2014, representing 33 percent of the state’s overall workforce. Inflation-adjusted wages for California’s low-wage workers have fallen over the last 35 years, even as earnings at the top have grown at record rates. At the same time, the low-wage workforce has gotten older and more educated. We explore California’s low-wage jobs problem in this chartbook, which defines and measures the rate of low-wage work in the state, gives a profile of low-wage workers and their jobs, details the industries and occupations with the biggest number of low-wage workers, and provides maps with county breakdowns

The High Public Cost of Low Wages
April 2015 | Ken Jacobs, Ian Perry and Jenifer MacGillvary
When companies pay too little for workers to provide for their families, workers rely on public assistance programs to meet their basic needs, creating significant cost at all levels of government. This is the first report to examine the cost to the 50 states of public assistance programs for working families. It examines working families’ utilization of the health care programs Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as well as their enrollment in the basic household income assistance program Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF). The report also looks at the costs to the federal government of Medicaid/CHIP and TANF, as well as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the food stamps program (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP). The report finds that between 2009 and 2011 the federal government spent $127.8 billion per year on these four programs for working families and the states collectively spent $25 billion per year on Medicaid/CHIP and TANF for working families for a total of $152.8 billion per year.

Health Insurance and Demographics of California Immigrants Eligible for Deferred Action
March 2015 | Laurel Lucia, Xiao Chen, Ken Jacobs and Nadereh Pourat
Between 360,000 and 500,000 California immigrants would become eligible for comprehensive Medi-Cal coverage if they receive temporary protection from deportation and permission to work as a result of recent executive actions by President Obama. In November, Obama announced the expansion of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA, and the creation of Deferred Action for Parents of U.S. Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents, or DAPA. Although immigrants approved under these programs are not eligible for Affordable Care Act coverage options, they are eligible for Medi-Cal under California state policy if they are in families earning less than a certain amount.

Based on analysis of Current Population Survey data, the authors estimate that up to 57 percent of Californians eligible for DACA or DAPA lacked private health insurance and had income that was below the Medi-Cal eligibility threshold in 2013. The brief also presents demographic estimates for undocumented California immigrants and those eligible for DACA and DAPA, including work status, age distribution, and education levels.

The Proposed Minimum Wage Law for Los Angeles: Economic Impacts and Policy Options
March 2015 | Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
The Los Angeles City Council is considering a citywide minimum wage increase to $13.25 by 2017 and $15.25 by 2019, followed by annual increases indexed to inflation. In this prospective study, we assess the economic impact of the proposal on workers, businesses and the city’s economy, and analyze a range of policy design options.

The Continuing Retirement Savings Crisis
March 2015 | Nari Rhee and Ilana Boivie
With the Baby Boom generation beginning to retire, more emphasis has recently focused on Americans' financial security in retirement. Most recent studies show that many Americans are ill-prepared for retirement, and that they are highly anxious about their ability to retire. The financial crisis of 2007-2008 was a huge setback for households. Since then, the combined value of 401(k) accounts and IRAs increased to a record high of $11.3 trillion at the end of 2013. Does this translate to improved retirement security for average American households? Unfortunately, the answer is no: the typical American household was further behind in retirement readiness in 2013 than in 2010 and 2007.

This report, an update of a previous NIRS report published in 2013, examines the readiness of working-age households, based primarily on an analysis of the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) from the U.S. Federal Reserve. The study analyzes workplace retirement plan coverage, retirement account ownership, and household retirement savings as a percentage of income, and estimates the share of working families that meet financial industry recommended benchmarks for retirement savings.

The Proposed Minimum Wage Law for Los Angeles: Economic Impacts and Policy Options
March 2015 | By Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
The Los Angeles City Council is considering a citywide minimum wage increase to $13.25 by 2017 and $15.25 by 2019, followed by annual increases indexed to inflation. In this prospective study, we assess the economic impact of the proposal on workers, businesses and the city's economy, and analyze a range of policy design options.

Our findings are based on a mid-range scenario for future wage and inflation growth in Los Angeles. If actual economic growth turns out to be stronger or weaker than in this scenario, our assessment would change accordingly.

Health Insurance and Demographics of California Immigrants Eligible for Deferred Action
March 2015 | Laurel Lucia, Xiao Chen, Ken Jacobs and Nadereh Pourat
Between 360,000 and 500,000 immigrants living in California would become eligible for Medi-Cal if they receive temporary protection from deportation and permission to work as a result of recent executive actions by President Barack Obama. Up to 57 percent of immigrants in California who are eligible under the executive actions are low income and lack private health insurance, according to a study by UC Berkeley's Center for Labor Research and Education and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.

Which Californians will Lack Health Insurance under the Affordable Care Act?
January 2015 | Laurel Lucia, Miranda Dietz, Ken Jacobs, Xiao Chen and Gerald F. Kominski
While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to reduce California’s uninsurance rate by at least half, we project that between 2.7 and 3.4 million Californians will remain uninsured by 2019. Projections from the California Simulation of Insurance Markets (CalSIM) model indicate that up to half of Californians remaining uninsured will be undocumented immigrants who are not eligible under the ACA. Most others lacking insurance will be eligible for Medi-Cal or subsidized insurance through Covered California but remain unenrolled due to difficulties with the enrollment process, inability to afford coverage, concerns about negative immigration-related consequences for themselves or their family members, or other barriers. Almost three-fourths of the remaining uninsured will be Latino, almost one-third will reside in Los Angeles County, and about 70% will be exempt from paying a tax penalty for lacking coverage.

Jobs and Investments to Achieve Zero Net Energy in MUSH Sector Buildings in the SoCalREN Territory
December 2014 | Megan Emiko Scott, Betony Jones and Carol Zabin
This brief estimates the investment needed, and the jobs this investment would generate, to achieve zero net energy (ZNE) in all Municipal, University, School, and Hospital (MUSH) sector buildings in the Southern California Regional Energy Network (SoCalREN) territory.

Environmental and Economic Benefits of Building Solar in California: Quality Careers—Cleaner Lives
November 2014 | Peter Philips
Policy and legislative action at both the federal and state levels has stimulated California's recent renewable-energy electricity-generation boom. This report examines the current and potential emissions averted by newly-constructed utility-scale solar farms in California. It calculates the new construction, maintenance and operations jobs created by these recent projects along with the upstream and downstream jobs stimulated by this construction. The report estimates the income, health-insurance and pension benefits of this new utility-scale solar farm construction and subsequent plant operation and maintenance jobs, calculates the training investments made as a result of these projects, estimates the impact of training on lifetime earnings of new workers, and presents case studies of four new apprentice workers employed on these projects. Finally, the report looks at the federal, state, and industry policies that made this solar boom possible and recommends four key policy actions to continue building on California’s leadership in creating high-quality jobs while decarbonizing the energy sector.

The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the Banking Industry
October 2014 | Sylvia A. Allegretto, Ken Jacobs, Dave Graham-Squire and Megan Emiko Scott
A portion of the data and analysis contained in this Policy Brief was previously included in the report The Committee for Better Banks Report: The state of the bank employee on Wall Street, available at

Report highlights

  • Nearly one-third (31 percent) of the families of bank tellers are enrolled in one or more public programs, compared to 25 percent of the workforce as a whole. Bank tellers and their families are more likely than working families in general to be enrolled in public programs.
  • The cost of public benefits to families of bank tellers is nearly $900 million per year.
  • At an average of $534 million per year, spending on Medicaid and CHIP accounts for more than half of these costs.
  • Due to low earnings, bank tellers’ and their families also receive an annual average of $105 million in food stamp benefits and $250 million in EITC payments.
  • More than 110,000 families of bank tellers (24 percent) receive EITC benefits—more than double the number enrolled in any other program. However, the EITC is less expensive than other programs on a household basis, with average benefits of approximately $2,177 per family.
  • The number of families with adults enrolled in Medicaid (43,000) is significantly smaller. But due to significantly higher program costs, Medicaid accounts for more total spending on bank tellers and their families than any other program.

The Mayor of Los Angeles' Proposed City Minimum Wage Policy: A Prospective Impact Study
September 2014 | Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
The Mayor of Los Angeles has requested that UC Berkeley's Institute for Research on Labor and Employment conduct an impact study of his proposal to establish a city-wide minimum wage of $13.25 an hour by 2017, phased in over three steps. This report therefore examines the effects of the minimum wage policy on Los Angeles workers, businesses and the overall economy.

San Francisco's Proposed City Minimum Wage Law: A Prospective Impact Study
August 2014 | Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
San Francisco's Mayor, members of the Board of Supervisors, and labor, business and community leaders recently agreed to place an initiative on the November 2014 ballot that would raise the minimum wage in the city to $15.00 an hour by 2018, phased in over four steps. This study examines the effects of the minimum wage proposal on San Francisco workers and businesses.

Affordable Care Act: Summary of Provisions Affecting Employer-Sponsored Insurance
July 2014 (updated) | UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education
This summary addresses common questions from unions and employers about the impact that the federal health law will have on employer-sponsored insurance.

Modified Adjusted Gross Income under the Affordable Care Act
July 2014 (updated) | UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education
This fact sheet summarizes the components of Modified Adjusted Gross Income, which is the basis for calculating eligibility for Medicaid and subsidized health insurance through the Exchanges under the Affordable Care Act.

Fact Sheet: Estimated Impact of San Diego's Proposed Minimum Wage Law
June 2014 | Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
The City of San Diego is considering a proposal to establish a citywide minimum wage. The proposed minimum wage would phase in over three years as follows: $9.75 on January 1, 2015; $10.50 on January 1, 2016; and $11.50 on January 1, 2017. Beginning in 2019, the city's minimum wage would be adjusted annually to keep up with increases in the cost of living.

The Impact of Oakland's Proposed City Minimum Wage Law: A Prospective Study
June 2014 | Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry
The Lift Up Oakland Coalition, an alliance of community, labor, small business and faith organizations, has placed an initiative on the Oakland November 2014 ballot that would establish a minimum wage of $12.25 for businesses in the city starting March 1, 2015. This study examines the effects of a $12.25 minimum wage on Oakland workers and businesses.

Data and Methods for Estimating the Impact of Proposed Local Minimum Wage Laws
June 2014 | Jeremy Welsh-Loveman, Ian Perry and Annette Bernhardt
In this technical report, we document a methodology developed by the UC Berkeley Labor Center to estimate the number of workers impacted by proposed local minimum wage laws, as well as the expected increase in wages. This methodology is similar to that used by researchers to generate impact estimates for national and state minimum wage proposals, but differs in several respects because of significant data limitations for city- or county-based analyses.

Shelved: How Wages and Working Conditions for California's Food Retail Workers have Declined as the Industry has Thrived
June 2014 | Saru Jayaraman
The report shows that while California's food retail industry has enjoyed consistent growth over the past two decades, the expansion of a low-price, low-cost business model – and the choices that traditional, unionized grocers have made in the face of it – have produced a dramatic wage decline, with high rates of poverty and hunger among workers in a sector that once enjoyed relatively high wages and unionization rates. The report calls for a two-pronged strategy to arrest and reverse these trends: support for unionization, and public policies that support livable wages and benefits. This strategy would promote the creation of good jobs in the food retail sector and help build long-term prosperity for California's families and communities.

Leadership Development

April 16-17, 2015 | Leadership Organizing Roundtable
The Leadership Organizing Roundtable was a gathering of executive council and other top union leaders in the state. Hosted by the California Labor Federation, and facilitated by the AFL-CIO and the Labor Centers at Berkeley and UCLA.

December 3-5, 2014 | Organizing Strategies Forum
The 5th annual Organizing Strategies Forum—which brings together senior-level Strategic Campaigners to discuss best practices and share new ideas—took place on December 3-5, 2014, at a retreat center in Northern California. Thirty-two people (including Labor Center staff) attended the Forum.

November 16, 2014 | National Black Worker Center Convening
On Saturday, November 16, 2014, the Labor Center hosted the first national convening of the National Black Worker Center Project. Attendees came from Boston, New York City, Washington DC, cities in North Carolina, Memphis, St. Louis, Chicago, Gary, Sacramento, Los Angeles, and various Bay Area cities. They included representatives of existing Black Worker Centers and people interested in organizing centers in their area.

July 21-25, 2014 | Strategic Campaigns Workshop
Participants learned how to do a power analysis, to map and chart relationships within as well as outside the worksite, to frame a message to the public, and to develop strategy using critical thinking skills. The November class had 20 participants.

June 25-26, 2014 | Strategic Research Workshop
This two-day workshop was attended by 20 union researchers and Labor Summer research-track interns. The workshop provided participants with a general overview, case studies, and hands-on exercises to practice research strategies and methods.

June 17, 2014 | Latino Leadership Forum
Organized by the Labor Center as a lead up to its 2015 Latino Leadership School and hosted by the South Bay Labor Council, this forum was attended by over 25 labor leaders.

Summer 2014 | Labor Summer
Labor Summer 2014 placed 23 students with 17 unions and community organizations throughout northern California. The Labor Summer Program expanded co-sponsorship to include three UC campuses: the UC Davis Center for Regional Change through Chris Benner, the Center for Labor Studies at UC Santa Cruz through Steve McKay, and the School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts at UC Merced through Robin DeLugan. Expanding the program to include multiple campuses helps to increase the pool of talented students and strengthen intercampus ties.

Global Labor

Katie Quan received a Fulbright Scholarship to study the apparel supply chain in China from October 2014 through March 2015.

International Center for Joint Labor Research at Sun Yat-sen University
The Chinese government closed the International Center for Joint Labor Research at Sun Yat-sen University in November 2014 without giving a reason. This was a joint project of the UC Berkeley Labor Center and the SYSU Institute for Political Science which was initiated four years ago. Further information can be found at Katie Quan is working on archiving the work of the Joint Center on the Labor Center's website.

Beijing Labor Conference
Katie Quan led a group of eight labor sociologists from the American Sociological Association's Labor and Labor Movements Section to a conference in Beijing hosted by the China Association of Work and Labor of the Chinese Sociological Association. There were 80 participants from across China, as well as U.S. labor scholars Chris Tilly, Stephanie Luce, Sarah Swider, Chris Rhomberg, Jamie McCallum, Jasmine Kerrissey, Lu Zhang, and Elena Shih. The conference was funded by the Ford Foundation.

New Staff

Alicia Flores joined the Leadership Development team. She provides assistance for the Labor Summer internship program and other Labor Center workshops and trainings.

Betony Jones joined the Don Vial Center team. Betony has extensive experience working in energy efficiency and on other clean energy issues and will help further the Center's work to promote a high-road model for the growth of clean energy sectors.

Nari Rhee returned to the Labor Center to head up the Retirement Security Program. Her current research focuses on the retirement crisis facing California and the US in the context of declining pension coverage, and policies to improve the retirement income prospects of low- and middle- wage workers.

Danielle Mahones has joined the Labor Center's Leadership Development team.

New Grants

Energy Foundation, Achieving Clean Energy Goals in California through High-Road Implementation

CalSTRS, CalSTRS Plan Design Analysis

The California Endowment, California Health Policy Research Program, 2015-2016

California Secure Choice Retirement Savings Investment Board (via sub-award through Overture Financial LLC), Market Analysis and Benefit Design Consultant Services for California Secure Choice

California HealthCare Foundation, Increasing the Affordability of Health Insurance in San Francisco: Population Estimates

Blue Shield of California Foundation, Understanding California's Remaining Uninsured

Y & H Soda Foundation, Low-Wage Work and Labor Standards in East Bay Cities

The California Wellness Foundation (via sub-award from UCLA), Estimates of the Remaining Uninsured in Southern California Counties

Other News

Why Raise the Minimum Wage? Using research from the UC Berkeley Institute for Research on Labor and Employment and the Economic Policy Institute, this new animated short produced by the Labor Center explains the benefits of raising the nation’s minimum wage for low-wage workers and what impacts it will have on the economy.

Launch of Redesigned Labor Center Website
Having been in the works for over a year, we are pleased to announce the recent launch of the Labor Center’s updated and redesigned website. Features include a searchable database of all Labor Center publications, a streamlined homepage, and mobile device compatibility. We are still ironing out the last kinks, but please take a look and let us know if you encounter any problems with functionality, or have any suggestions for additional features or material.

New Publication
Work, Money, and Power: Unions in the 21st Century is now available in Chinese! Translated by Cecilia Wong. This pamphlet was commissioned by the California Speaker’s Commission on Labor Education and produced by the UC Berkeley Labor Center, and answers basic questions about unions and the labor movement. An informative, readable and attractive resource for unions, schools, community groups and others.


September 30, 2014 | Vietnam: Worker Shared Challenges
The Labor Center hosted a brown bag discussion with retired union organizers and activists Leanna Noble and Hollis Stewart to share their recent experiences from seven months teaching labor relations at Ton Duc Thang University in Ho Chi Minh City. The discussion covered the shared interests of USA and Vietnamese labor unions and educators, and focused on areas around industrialization and economic development, labor organizing and structure, leader and member development, political education, and labor law and the role of the state.

October 1, 2014 | FOOD+LABOR: Forging a Truly Sustainable Food Policy Agenda for California in 2015
The UC Berkeley Labor Center and The Berkeley Food Institute sponsored this panel discussion, which brought together food movement leaders, labor leaders, and legislators and examined the findings of the recently released report “Shelved: How Wages and Working Conditions for California’s Food Retail Workers Have Declined as the Industry Has Thrived.” Panelists included California Legislators, Chris Benner from UC Davis, James Araby of the UFCW Western States Council, and Michael Dimock from Roots of Change. The event was moderated by Saru Jayaraman.

September 29, 2014 | UC Berkeley Roundtable Discussion: New Minimum Wage Policy and Research
The Institute for Research on Labor and Employment held a roundtable discussion about the various minimum wage impact studies that have come out of UC Berkeley in recent months. Event speakers included Sylvia Allegretto, Annette Bernhardt, Ken Jacobs, and Michael Reich.


Can We Finally Treat Food Workers Fairly?
May 27, 2015 | New York Times

Can We Head Off a Long Hot Summer of Riots and Rebellion?
May 26, 2015 | Huffington Post

The Cost of an Adjunct
May 25, 2015 | The Atlantic

The Global African: The State of Black Workers & Violence in Burundi
May 24, 2015 | The Global African

Opinion: Sacramento should proceed cautiously with minimum wage increases
May 23, 2015 | Sacramento Bee

CA Senate Committee Would Boost Medi-Cal, Including for Undocumented
May 22, 2015 | New America Media

Forget First Quarter Earnings, Wal-Mart Just Made a Long-Term, Business-Sustaining Move
May 21, 2015 | TheStreet

A Fascinating Minimum-Wage Experiment Is About to Unfold
May 21, 2015 | The New Yorker

10 Ways L.A.'s $15 Minimum Wage Is Massive Nationwide Win For Low-Wage Workers
May 21, 2015 | AlterNet

McDonald's faces worker pressure as shareholders meet
May 21, 2015 | BBC News

Rising minimum wages put spotlight on the tip credit debate
May 20, 2015 | San Francisco Chronicle

Building on California's Immigrant Rights Blueprint
May 20, 2015 | Huffington Post

Ending the Minimum-Wage Subsidy
May 20, 2015 | Bloomberg View

The Wage War's Two Battlegrounds: The Ballot Box and the Board Room
May 20, 2015 | Huffington Post

Guest commentary: A tragic story that demands action by the Legislature
May 19, 2015 | Contra Costa Times

Is It Time For Companies To Pay For Not Paying Enough? The “Walmart Tax” Gains Momentum
May 18, 2015 | Co.Exist

Commentary: Low-wage jobs are California's Achilles' heel
May 16, 2015 | Sacramento Bee | Commentary by Annette Bernhardt

Mexico's Wage-Boosting Experiment
May 15, 2015 | The Atlantic

Facebook has a new answer to income inequality
May 13, 2015 | Washington Post Wonkblog

Inside the Ambitious (And Affordable) Plan To Bring ‘Health Care For All' to California
May 13, 2015 | California Healthline

Half of remaining uninsured are workers; look for small-biz push
May 7, 2015 | Sacramento Business Journal

Working, but still poor
May 7, 2015 | CNN Money

UC study says ranks of low-wage California workers growing
May 6, 2015 | Sacramento Bee Capitol Alert blog 

More Evidence that California Has a Wage Gap More Than a Skills Gap
May 5, 2015 | Fox&Hounds Daily

Healthcare for those in U.S. illegally could cost California $740 million a year
May 4, 2015 | Los Angeles Times 

Keith Hoeller: Adjunct professors deserve more money, job security
May 2, 2015 | Spokesman-Review

Throw Your Servers a Few Extra Bucks—Two States Are Trying to Lower Their Pay
May 1, 2015 | TakePart

‘Right-to-Work' Laws Depress Union and Non-Union Wages
May 1, 2015 | Black Voice News

Picking Up the Tab for Low Wages
May 1, 2015 | New York Times

California Low-Wage Earners' Reward for Higher Productivity—Less Money
May 1, 2015 | AllGov

California Low-Wage Workers Earning Less Now Than In 1979, Study Finds
April 30, 2015 | CBS SF Bay Area

California's low-wage workers earn less than in 1979, study shows
April 30, 2015 | Los Angeles Times

New report puts more momentum behind L.A. minimum wage hike
April 30, 2015 | 89.3 KPCC Southern California Public Radio 

California's 4.8 million low-wage workers now earn less than in 1979
April 30, 2015 | UC Berkeley NewsCenter

Adjunct professors at area universities seek to organize
April 29, 2015 | Chicago Sun-Times

Dem leaders want Senate food workers to make $15 an hour
April 28, 2015 | The Hill

Inequality takes off at airports – and Toronto workers fight back
April 26, 2015 | Toronto Star 

New labor issue could cause slowdown at West Coast ports
April 25, 2015 | KTVU

Why Aren't Fast-Food Workers Unionized?
April 23, 2015 | Eater 

A war not won
April 23, 2015 | Barre Montpelier Times Argus

Tavis Smiley: My Conversation on the Fight for $15 with Saru Jayaraman
April 23, 2015 | Huffington Post

The Public Cost of Fast Food Wages
April 22, 2015 | KCET Food Rant 

Democrats Are Rallying Around $12 Minimum Wage
April 22, 2015 | New York Times

Study: Low Wages Cost Taxpayers $153B Annually In Public Assistance For Working Families
April 21, 2015 | Wisconsin Public Radio 

Editorial: Who pays for low wages? Taxpayers
April 19, 2015 | Concord Monitor

What if Arizona Cities Set the Minimum Wage?
April 19, 2015 | azcentral

The odds are high that your nanny is on welfare
April 17, 2015 | Quartz

The Makings of a Fast-Food-Worker Movement
April 17, 2015 | TakePart

Adjuncts on Welfare
April 17, 2015 | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

25% of part-time university faculty in the US need government aid
April 16, 2015 | Quartz

Working and on welfare: NH tops
April 16, 2015 | New Hampshire Union Leader 

Editorial | Welfare and working poor

April 16, 2015 | Louisville Courier-Journal

Restaurant Workers Unite For ‘One Fair Wage'
April 16, 2015 | Forbes

Adjunct Faculty Around the Country Join Fight for 15 Protests
April 16, 2015 | In These Times 

Low Wages Cost American Taxpayers $153 Billion Annually
April 16, 2015 | Madame Noire  

UC Berkeley faculty present research brief on high public costs of low wages in US
April 16, 2015 | Daily Californian 

As Cities Raise their Minimum Wage, Where's the Economic Collapse the Right Predicted?
April 16, 2015 | Mother Jones

Editorial: All Work and Low Pay
April 15, 2015 | Philadelphia Daily News 

Living wages should start with employers, not taxpayers
April 15, 2015 | Minneapolis Star Tribune 

25% of college adjunct faculty get government assistance
April 15, 2015 | MarketWatch

Taxpayers Pay Dearly for Low Corporate Wages
April 15, 2015 | U.S. News & World Report

Asheville workers walk out for higher wages
April 15, 2015 | Asheville Citizen-Times

How Low-Wage Jobs Cost Everyone Billions
April 15, 2015 | Refinery29

Most Arizonans on Welfare Have Jobs
April 15, 2015 | Phoenix New Times 

Low-wage workers annually cost taxpayers $153 billion in public assistance, a new report says
April 15, 2015 | Kansas City Star

Minimum-wage workers take to streets to ‘Fight for 15′
April 15, 2015 | Los Angeles Times

Twice the Burden: Low-Wage Employers Cost Taxpayers Billions in Public Assistance and Lost Tax Revenue
April 15, 2015 | Huffington Post

Fight for $15 rallies part-time college professors
April 15, 2015 | Chicago Tribune

How Your Tax Dollars Subsidize Low-Wage Industries
April 15, 2015 | The Fiscal Times

Commentary: Americans are spending $153 billion a year to subsidize McDonald's and Wal-Mart's low wage workers
April 15, 2015 | Washington Post | Commentary by Ken Jacobs

‘High Public Cost Of Low Wages': Taxpayers Paying Billions In Assistance To Working Families
April 14, 2015 | Inquisitr

Why Is American Social Welfare So Incredibly Expensive?
April 14, 2015 | Business Cheat Sheet 

The big lie about families on welfare: they don't work
April 14, 2015 | Vox

US labour: High stakes on low pay
April 14, 2015 | Financial Times 

Flagstaff group sues to raise minimum wage
April 14, 2015 | azcentral

Study: One-Third Of CT Workers Earn Less Than $15 Per Hour
April 14, 2015 | Hartford Courant 

When work isn't enough to keep you off welfare and food stamps
April 14, 2015 | Washington Post Wonkblog 

Local First Arizona, Walmart say Arizona wage study not full picture
April 14, 2015 | Phoenix Business Journal  

Taxpayers Spend Billions On Government Help For Low-Wage Workers
April 14, 2015 | International Business Times

Nation's fast-food workers stage strike on Tax Day
April 14, 2015 | Asheville Citizen-Times

How much each state spends on aid to poor workers
April 14, 2015 | Washington Post

Wage based on public assistance
April 13, 2015 | Marketplace

52 Percent of Fast Food Workers Need Government Assistance to Make Ends Meet
April 13, 2015 | Eater

Get a Job? Most Welfare Recipients Already Have One
April 13, 2015 | Wall Street Journal Real Time Economics

How low-wage employers cost taxpayers $153B a year
April 13, 2015 | CBS MoneyWatch

Low Wages Cost U.S. Taxpayers $153 Billion A Year
April 13, 2015 | Huffington Post

DATA: Government spends $153 billion per year helping working families
April 13, 2015 | Chicago Sun-Times 

Study says low wages cost US $153bn a year
April 13, 2015 | Financial Times

Majority of public assistance goes to working families, report finds
April 13, 2015 | Al Jazeera America

Most aid to families goes to working families
April 13, 2015 | Marketplace

Study Finds Low Minimum Wage Costs Government Big Money
April 13, 2015 | KGO Radio

McDonald's franchise workers denied pay raise to join 200-city protest
April 13, 2015 | The Guardian 

Study: Majority Receiving Public Assistance Are Working Poor
April 13, 2015 | Here & Now

UC Berkeley Report: Poverty-Level Wages Costing Public Billions Every Year
April 13, 2015 | East Bay Express

Someone Calculated How Many Adjunct Professors Are on Public Assistance, and the Number Is Startling
April 13, 2015 | Slate

You Are Paying Billions Because McDonald's and Walmart Won't
April 13, 2015 | Gawker 

Taxpayers Beware: 5 Reasons You May Want the Minimum Wage Raised
April 13, 2015 | TakePart 

Wage Effort Poses Test for Clinton Campaign
April 13, 2015 | New York Times 

Study: Arizona taxpayers pay out $686M a year for McJobs
April 13, 2015 | Phoenix Business Journal 

The government spends $152.8 billion a year supporting workers who are paid so little they're still poor
April 13, 2015 | Business Insider 

Study: When companies pay low wages, taxpayers end up with the rest of the bill
April 13, 2015 | Washington Post

Fight over low pay, unpredictable work schedules
April 12, 2015 | Sacramento Bee 

Working, but Needing Public Assistance Anyway
April 12, 2015 | New York Times 

Opinions: Five myths about fast-food work
April 10, 2015 | Washington Post 

Napans show interest in higher minimum wage
April 10, 2015 | Napa Valley Register 

New immigration rules in Calif. could reduce uninsured by up to half a million
April 9, 2015 | Reporting on Health 

With County Safety Nets Frayed, ‘Remaining Uninsured' Pin Hopes on Lara's Bill
April 8, 2015 | New America Media 

With new immigration proposals, state lawmakers hope to build momentum
April 7, 2015 | Los Angeles Times 

Uninsured? Here Are Alternative Options for Medical Care
April 7, 2015 | KQED State of Health blog 

Raising Wages From the Bottom Up
April 7, 2015 | American Prospect 

Service and Retail Wages See Increases, But Why Do They Feel So Hollow?
April 6, 2015 | MainStreet 

Your College Professor Could Be On Public Assistance
April 6, 2015 | NBC News 

Food justice takes center stage
April 1, 2015 | UC Newsroom 

Seattle workers, restaurants get ready for ‘new world' of wages
March 31, 2015 | Seattle Times 

UC Berkeley faculty present study on potential impact of higher minimum wage in LA
March 28, 2015 | Daily Californian 

Businesses, workers adjusting to Oakland's higher minimum wage
March 28, 2015 | Contra Costa Times 

500K Undocumented Immigrants Could Be Added To Medi-Cal Rolls
March 26, 2015 | California Healthline 

Should McDonald's Follow Wal-Mart's Lead and Hike Wages?
March 26, 2015 | Motley Fool 

#Health4All: New Reports On Undocumented Californians' Access to Health Care
March 26, 2015 | The California Endowment 

LA City Council committee considers impact of raising minimum wage
March 25, 2015 | 89.3 KPCC Southern California Public Radio 

Medi-Cal rolls could swell under Obama's deportation relief plan
March 25, 2015 | Los Angeles Times 

3 in 5 want to retire somewhere else
March 23, 2015 | Bankrate

U.S. Retirement Crisis Is Real: NIRS
March 20, 2015 | ThinkAdvisor

Chain Restaurants Are Locked in a Last-Ditch Legal Battle Over Seattle's $15 Minimum Wage
March 19, 2015 | Vice News

Los Angeles International Airport workers sue airplane food company for wage theft
March 18, 2015 | Daily Breeze

Oakland Minimum Wage Hike Leaves Students Uncertain
March 11, 2015 | Golden Gate Xpress

Could a $15 minimum wage make sense for Oregon?
March 9, 2015 | Christian Science Monitor

Is right-to-work the kiss of death for labor unions?
March 9, 2015 | PBS NewsHour

As Oakland's minimum wage rises, a mixed reaction from workers and businesses
March 6, 2015 | Oakland North

Good News for New York's Tipped Workers: Your Minimum Wage is Going Up
February 26, 2015 | In These Times

For Many Middle-Class Taxpayers On Obamacare, It's Payback Time
February 26, 2015 | Kaiser Health News

Obama Immigration Move Won't Solve Health Issues
February 26, 2015 | Huffington Post

TaskRabbit takes hold in Bay Area divided by income gap
February 19, 2015 | KALW radio

Aid to Needy Often Excludes the Poorest in America
February 16, 2015 | New York Times

Covered California hoping for enrollment surge to meet goal
February 12, 2015 | San Jose Mercury News

Half of California Workers Are Heading for Retirement Struggles
February 10, 2015 | Capital & Main

How Immigration Changes, Proposal for Undocumented Could Affect Medi-Cal
February 9, 2015 | California Healthline

Marin clinics expand with rise in Medi-Cal patients
February 2, 2015 | North Bay Business Journal

How Minimum Wage Impacts Unemployment
January 30, 2015 | Investopedia

Left Behind by the Affordable Care Act
January 30, 2015 | California Health Report

Making a Living Wage in Fast Food in Denmark
January 29, 2015 | The Daily Meal

Tracking the 5 Major Employment Indicators in California
January 22, 2015 | Fox&Hounds Daily

‘Top Chef Judge Tom Colicchio Speaks Out About Accusations of Worker Abuse
January 22, 2015 | TakePart

The First ACA Tax Filing Season Could Have Problems
January 22, 2015 | Bloomberg BNA

Redefining full-time: How to give employers reason to cut more workers' hours
January 20, 2015 | Bangor Daily News

A new effort to help black workers find higher-paying jobs
January 20, 2015 | Los Angeles Times

Black unemployment rate headed for single digits
January 18, 2015 | New Pittsburgh Courier

Five Questions with Saru Jayaraman of Restaurant Opportunities Centers United
January 17, 2015 | The Daily Meal

Calif. has novel view of health care for undocumented immigrants
January 17, 2015 | USA Today

Black Unemployment Rate Headed for Single Digits By Freddie Allen
January 12, 2015 | Dallas Weekly

U.S. Laundry Workers Center Staff Workers alleging wage theft say picketing the surest path to justice
January 6, 2015 | Al Jazeera America

New Initiatives Set to Increase Health Coverage for Undocumented Immigrants in California
January 5, 2015 | California Health Report

Minimum wage a global bone of contention
December 31, 2014 | Deutsche Welle

Two years later, fast food workers' fight for $15 and a union still going strong
December 31, 2014 | Richmond Confidential

Higher Minimum Wages on New Year's Day for Workers in 20 States
December 30, 2014 | Bloomberg

The False Dichotomy of Wages vs. Profits
December 22, 2014 | strategy+business blog

I make 300 cups of coffee every day. I get $9 an hour plus tips
December 17, 2014 | San Diego Reader

Is It Bad Enough Yet?
December 13, 2014 | New York Times

Mark Bittman, Claus Meyer and other food luminaries to teach at Berkeley Food Institute
December 12, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle Inside Scoop SF blog

Calif. legislature will consider health coverage for undocumented
December 12, 2014 | People's World

2014 Newsmakers: Mayor Eric Garcetti's Minimum Wage Proposal
December 11, 2014 | California Apparel News

Food luminaries to light up spring semester
December 11, 2014 | UC Berkeley NewsCenter

Expanded Medicaid remains year-round option for many
December 7, 2014 | Detroit Free Press

DACA Medi-Cal — A Lifeline for Young Samoan With Bone Disease
December 5, 2014 | New America Media

Governor Brown considers expanding Medi-Cal for Deferred Action Recipients
December 5, 2014 | 89.3 KPCC Southern California Public Radio, AirTalk

Fast Food Workers, Joined By Other Low Wage Workers, Strike in Record 190 Cities
December 4, 2014 | In These Times

Latest minimum wage strikes expand beyond restaurant industry
December 4, 2014 | Nation's Restaurant News

Fast-Food Workers Strike in Oakland, Again
December 4, 2014 | East Bay Express

Immigration: Three Families, Three Stories
December 3, 2014 | Huffington Post

Expand Medi-Cal coverage to undocumented Californians
December 3, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Should Toronto have a higher minimum wage than the rest of Ontario?
December 2, 2014 | Toronto Star

Fast-Food Workers in 150 Cities Will Strike This Week for a $15 Hourly Wage
December 2, 2014 | Mic

New move to boost minimum wage
December 1, 2014 | Central Valley Business Times

Walmart workers launch Black Friday protest
November 28, 2014 | Al Jazeera America

Does Immigration Reform Benefit Blacks?
November 26, 2014 | Los Angeles Sentinel

Immigration overhaul could boost Latino enrollment in Obamacare
November 22, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

SF taxi drivers promise a repeat of airport protest
November 19, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

A Minimum Wage Increase Means Nothing if Your Boss is a Scofflaw
November 19, 2014 | San Francisco Public Press

San Francisco Wins a Battle in the Fight For $15
November 2, 2014 | Wall St. Cheat Sheet

Commentary: The market for local health plans is getting bigger
November 10, 2014 | Zocalo Public Square
Part of Zocalo Public Square's discussion: “Is Local Healthcare Better Healthcare?”

25 ways the uninsured can dodge health care penalty
November 7, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle 

Still no clear path for a higher minimum wage
November 5, 2014 | CBS MoneyWatch

Data Shows Unemployment Down, Growth Robust After San Jose Adopts $10 Minimum Wage
November 4, 2014 | CBS SF Bay Area

In States Voting on Minimum Wage, Even Critics Sound Like Supporters
November 3, 2014 | New York Times 

Guest commentary: It makes sense to support Measure FF and raise the minimum wage in Oakland
November 1, 2014 | Contra Costa Times 

Discussion on efforts to raise the minimum wage at the ballot box
October 30, 2014 | KPFA Up Front

Minimum wage: For this working mom, it means constantly telling the kids ‘No'
October 29, 2014 | 89.3 KPCC Southern California Public Radio 

Do minority employees in Michigan restaurants face a glass ceiling?
October 28, 2014 | Michigan Radio

Restaurants Replace Tipping with 20 Percent Surcharge
October 27, 2014 | KQED Forum

Fast Food in Denmark Serves Something Atypical: Living Wages
October 27, 2014 | New York Times 

The Restaurant Industry Is Rife With Race Discrimination
October 24, 2014 | ThinkProgress  

Workers group alleges widespread discrimination in restaurants
October 23, 2014 | MSNBC

Hiking minimum wage in voters' hands with Prop. J
October 16, 2014 | San Francisco Examiner  

Report Claims Over 90% Of Female Restaurant Workers Have Been Sexually Harassed
October 16, 2014 | Business Insider  

Minimum wage fight moves from Capitol Hill to state and local ballots
October 16, 2014 | Washington Examiner 

L.A. workers wonder if minimum wage hike will help
October 16, 2014 | Arizona Daily Sun

Is the Fast-Food Industry Driving Income Inequality in America?
October 15, 2014 | Wall St. Cheat Sheet

‘I'm not on the menu': restaurant workers speak out against harassment
October 15, 2014 | The Guardian

Rich and on the dole
October 14, 2014 | New York Daily News 

Bay Area Cities Set Sights on Raising Their Minimum Wage
October 14, 2014 | Capital & Main

Campaigners Call for "One Fair Wage" to Help End Sexual Harassment for Tipped Restaurant Workers
October 13, 2014 | Democracy Now! 

Living on the bare minimum
October 11, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Mountain View OKs $10.30 minimum wage
October 10, 2014 | Mountain View Voice

For black men, a permanent recession
October 9, 2014 | Al Jazeera America 

Group: Sexual harassment rife in restaurants
October 7, 2014 | USA Today

Four takeaways from Joe Biden's Las Vegas visit
October 6, 2014 | Las Vegas Sun

New York City, LA among cities moving to raise minimum wage
October 5, 2014 | PBS Newshour

L.A.'s Minimum-Wage Experiment
October 3, 2014 | Bloomberg View

LA Council On a Roll … Could Bump Wage Minimum to $15 Citywide
October 3, 2014 | CityWatch

Savio lecturer: Speak up for workers 'behind the kitchen door'
October 3, 2014 | UC Berkeley NewsCenter 

Los Angeles Minimum-Wage Boost Seen as Policy Test
October 2, 2014 | Wall Street Journal

L.A. to Weigh Citywide Wage Hike
October 2, 2014 | Capital & Main

S.F., Oakland at forefront of U.S. minimum wage movement
October 2, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle 

Berkeley Economists Examine the Real Cost of Minimum Wage Increases
September 30, 2014 | California Magazine, Cal Alumni Association 

How To Pay for Health for All?
September 25, 2014 | California Healthline

Marriott to hotel guests: Please pay our maids for us
September 16, 2014 | Fortune

Editorial: A higher minimum wage makes sense for L.A., but it's no cure-all
September 14, 2014 | Los Angeles Times 

Garcetti asking nearby cities to join L.A. in boosting minimum wages
September 14, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Commentary: The rise of the low-wage restaurant industrial complex
September 13, 2014 | MSNBC | Commentary by Saru Jayarama

Mayor Garcetti hopes to pass $13.25 minimum wage in L.A. by early 2015
September 12, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Study: Fast Food Workers More Likely To Be On Publicly Subsidized Healthcare
September 4, 2014 | Capital Public Radio

UC Berkeley study backs San Francisco minimum wage hike
September 3, 2014 |

San Francisco minimum wage increase would bump 23 percent of workers' salaries, researchers find
September 3, 2014 | The Daily Californian

Welfare rates vary widely by state and city
September 2, 2014 | Washington Post

Garcetti Plans to Raise Minimum Wage to $13.25 by 2017
September 2, 2014 | Los Angeles Magazine

Los Angeles joins the local movement to raise the minimum wage
September 2, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Mayor Garcetti: $13.25 minimum wage would bolster buying power, boost productivity
September 2, 2014 | 89.3 KPCC

Minimum wage hike could affect 4 in 10 LA workers, boost economy
September 2, 2014 | 89.3 KPCC

Los Angeles Proposes a Higher Minimum Wage
September 2, 2014 | Huffington Post

Op-Ed: Hiding L.A.'s minimum wage is a win-win
September 1, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Garcetti calls for boosting minimum wage to $13.25 after three years
September 1, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Garcetti calls for $13.25 minimum wage by 2017
September 1, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announces plan for minimum wage hike
September 1, 2014 | Los Angeles Daily News

Union Workers Push for Minimum Wage Hike
September 1, 2014 | abc7 News

The Sunday Show with Philip Maldari: Labor Day
August 31, 2014 | KPFA

Los Angeles Mayor Considers a $13.25 Minimum Wage
August 29, 2014 | Businessweek

142,000 Workers to Benefit from SF Minimum Wage Hike
August 28, 2014 | Beyond Chron

Who Stands to Benefit from San Diego's Minimum Wage Hike
August 28, 2014 | Voice of San Diego

UC Berkeley study highlights benefits of proposed San Francisco minimum wage increase
August 28, 2014 | San Francisco Examiner

Proposed Minimum Wage Hike in San Francisco to Benefit People of Color, Study Finds
August 27, 2014 | Pacifica Evening News

Minimum wage bump would help close wealth gap for 23% in S.F.
August 27, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Minimum Wage Hike Can Help Close San Francisco's Extreme Income Gap, Study Finds
August 27, 2014 | Huffington Post

UC Berkeley Offers 2nd Opinion On San Francisco's Proposed $15-An-Hour Minimum Wage
August 27, 2014 | CBS SF Bay Area

On Labor Day, Let's Celebrate Farm and Food System Workers
August 26, 2014 | Huffington Post

U.S. Chamber of Commerce Joins Lawsuit Against "Discriminatory" Seattle Minimum Wage Hike
August 14, 2014 | Huffington Post

A university president gave up $90,000 to give his minimum wage workers a raise
August 11, 2014 | Vox

Why Are Black Workers Relegated to the Lowest-Paying Jobs at Baltimore's Airport?
August 8, 2014 | The Nation

The Future of Minimum Wage Will Be Decided in Cities
August 1, 2014 | New Republic

Complaint from 1 Berkeley worker puts living wage law under scrutiny
July 30, 2014 | The Daily Californian

Time to update health exchange data to avoid tax surprises
July 30, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Indocumentados aportan millones a la economía
July 29, 2014 | La Opinión

Nonprofits fear Oakland minimum wage hike
July 27, 2014 | San Jose Mercury News

Minimum-wage increase a boost for Oakland
July 25, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Koch brothers' new racial gambit: What's really behind a quiet battle with AFSCME
July 25, 2014 | Salon

Minimum wage initiative to benefit at least 172,000 San Diegans
July 14, 2014 |

A Battle for Profits
July 9, 2014 | East Bay Express

The ACA and Part-time Work
July 7, 2014 | Bangor Daily News, Pine Treeconomics blog

Wal-Mart…the Race to the Bottom – Rohnert Park Super-Center?
July 3, 2014 | Sonoma County Gazette

What The Supreme Court Rulings Mean For Unions, Religious Freedom
July 1, 2014 | WAMC Northeast Public Radio

Ikea to raise its average minimum hourly wage to $10.76
June 26, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Wal-Mart flunks its fact-check: The truth behind its sarcastic response to the Times
June 25, 2014 | Salon

Deferred Action immigrant students right to California health service routinely rejected
June 18, 2014 |

San Francisco leads the way with $15 minimum-wage ballot measure
June 15, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

Oakland confronts dueling minimum wage hikes
June 13, 2014 | Oakland Tribune

Minimum wage boost creates positive effects, report shows
June 13, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Oakland: Study Says Minimum Wage Increase Would Help City's Economy
June 13, 2014 | Berkeley Daily Planet

New study shows who wins if Oakland hikes minimum wage
June 13, 2014 | San Francisco Business Times

Grocery store workers go on the dole as wages fall
June 11, 2014 | Retail Wire

Supermarket wages have declined nearly 25% since 1999, study says
June 9, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

UFCW study urges legislative support for unions
June 9, 2014 | Supermarket News

Grocery workers in California see wages shrink
June 8, 2014 | San Francisco Chronicle

Study: Grocery workers struggle to pay for food
June 8, 2014 | Sacramento Bee

How Seattle's $15 Minimum Wage Victory Began in New York City's Zuccotti Park
June 5, 2014 | American Prospect

Seattle raises minimum wage to $15 an hour, highest in U.S.
June 2, 2014 | Los Angeles Times

California Public Employee Relations

Pocket Guides

In the past year, CPER has continued to publish new titles and new editions in our popular Pocket Guide Series covering public sector labor relations.

Pocket Guide to Dismissal Procedures Affecting Permanent, Certificated Employees(2015) By Dale Brodsky

Pertinent to the education community, A.B. 215 took effect on January 1, 2015. The new law, which governs dismissals and suspensions of permanent certificated employees, achieves the most significant overhaul of the dismissal statutes since 1983. CPER's Pocket Guide focuses on changes initiated by A.B. 215, and briefly describes the full reach of the dismissal process, including the unchanged portions.

Pocket Guide to Public Sector Arbitration: California (4th edition, 2015) By Bonnie Bogue, Frank Silver and Katherine Thomson

A readable yet comprehensive guide to everything you need to know about public sector arbitration. Updated with the latest court decisions and statutes, the guide explains the procedures and principles that apply to both grievance arbitration and interest arbitration, including the standards that guide arbitrators in deciding cases. It also examines the courts' treatment of final and binding arbitration. The fourth edition takes a closer look at arbitrators, themselves -- their backgrounds, how they gain admission to rosters of arbitration agencies, constraints on their authority, and how parties make a selection.

Pocket Guide to Public Sector Mediation (2nd edition, 2015) By Gerald Fecher
Mediation continues to be a successful method for resolving labor disputes for public sector employees in California. The guide discusses the various aspects of the mediation process as it applies to public agencies and employees throughout the state. Because the process differs among public employees depending on the governing statute, this guide outlines those differences and explains how the process typically works. Useful for both the beginning practitioner and the seasoned professional, the guide covers the types of mediation, levels of involvement, and the importance of confidentiality. Included are the relevant statutory language of each act, important cases, selected references, and a glossary of terms. The second edition contains new information and statutory language about mediation under California's most recent labor relations statute, the In-Home Supportive Services Employer-Employee Relations Act (IHSSEERA). This edition also covers language related to the move of the State Mediation & Conciliation Service from the Department of Industrial Relations to the Public Employment Relations Board, and provides the most-recent court and PERB decisions concerning mediation.

Pocket Guide to the Basics of Labor Relations (4th edition, 2014) By Rhonda Albey
If you are a manager who has just been given an assignment that includes labor relations responsibility, or if you are a newly appointed union representative, this Pocket Guide can help you get your bearings and survive the initial stages of what can be a difficult, but rewarding, line of work. The guide offers advice and resources on managing a bargaining team and how best to work with different types of personalities.

Pocket Guide to the Firefighters Procedural Bill of Rights Act (3rd edition 2014) By J. Scott Tiedemann
Firefighters have a resource comparable to CPER's bestselling Pocket Guide to the Public Safety Officers Procedural Bill of Rights Act, known statewide as the definitive guide to peace officers' rights and protections. The Firefighters Bill of Rights Act is largely modeled on the PSOPBRA, which has protected peace officers for over 30 years. The firefighters guide cites cases decided under the PSOPBRA that are likely to influence how the courts interpret the FBOR. There are some significant differences between the two laws, and those differences are highlighted. The Guide is designed for firefighters of all ranks and for their employee organizations and employers in the State of California, and in any city, county, municipal corporation, public district, or public authority that provides firefighting, police, ambulance, medical, or other emergency services.

Pocket Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act (3rd edition, 2014) By Cathleen Williams and Edmund K. Brehl; updated by Brian Walter   
The FLSA Pocket Guide focuses on the Act's impact in the public sector workplace and explains complicated provisions of the law that have vexed public sector practitioners, like the "salary basis" test and deductions from pay and leave for partial-day absences. Each chapter tackles a broad topic by providing a detailed discussion of the law's many applications in special workplace environments. For example, the chapter that covers overtime calculation begins by defining regular rate of pay and then considers the payment of bonuses, fluctuating workweeks, and alternative work periods for law enforcement and fire protection employees. Other chapters focus on record keeping requirements, hours of work, and "white collar" exemptions. In each case, detailed footnotes offer an in-depth discussion of the varied applications of the FLSA.

Coming this summer and fall:
Pocket Guide to the Public Employees' Pension Reform Act (2nd edition)
Pocket Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Acts (5th edition)
Pocket Guide to Disability Discrimination in the California Workplace (3rd edition)

All Pocket Guide are described and can be ordered at

Center for the Study of Child Care

The Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE, continues to conduct cutting-edge research and proposes policy solutions aimed at improving how our nation prepares, supports, and rewards the early care and education workforce to ensure young children's optimal development. To advance this work, the CSCCE engaged in the research and policy projects and activities detailed below.

Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Early Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study

On November 18, 2014 the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California, Berkeley released Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Early Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study, at an event hosted by New America in Washington, DC.

In 1989 the National Child Care Staffing Study (NCCSS), authored by CSCCE Director, Marcy Whitebook, Deborah Phillips, Georgetown University, and Carollee Howes, UCLA brought national attention for the first time to  the poverty-level wages and high turnover among  early childhood teachers, and the adverse consequences for children. In the succeeding quarter century, combined developments in science, practice, and policy have dramatically shifted the context for discussions about the status of early childhood teaching jobs, and the importance of attracting and retaining a well-prepared workforce that is capable of promoting young children's learning, health and development. 

Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages, by the original NCCSS authors, examines trends in early childhood teachers education, wages and turnover, includes new evidence about economic insecurity and use of public income supports among the early childhood workforce, and appraises state and national efforts to improve early childhood teaching jobs.
A section of this report was co-authored by Ken Jacobs, Dave Graham-Squire, and Ian Perry of the Labor Center and Sylvia Allegretto of the Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics.

To read the report and watch the panel, please go to

Rewarding Environment

To attract and retain competent and able employees, we need a national commitment to increase compensation, improve adult work environments, and support on-going learning for our early care and education workforce.

  • To advance this work, in addition to the release of Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages, the CSCCE continues to implement, and present to a national audience on the Supportive Environmental Quality Underlying Adult Learning (SEQUAL). SEQUAL is a tool designed to measure early childhood teachers' perceptions about the adult learning environment in center-based early care and education programs.  It focuses on how ECE programs support teachers' professional growth, learning, and well-being, and identifies components of the workplace that enable teachers to continue to develop their knowledge and skills on the job.

In 2014 CSCCE announced its Commitment to Action Assessing What Teachers Need to Help Children Succeed, at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) America Meeting. This represents a two-year commitment to expand the use of, and scale up SEQUAL and accompanying services and training resources.   

Access to Education

To encourage continuous growth and learning among the early care and education workforce, we recommend revamping the content of higher education programs, expanding services and supports for success in higher education, and increasing support for on-going learning on the job. To advance this work, CSCCE conducted  the Early Childhood Higher Education Inventory (Inventory) - a research tool designed by CSCCE  to assist policymakers and other stakeholders in developing a more coordinated and comprehensive professional development system for the early care and education workforce - in three additional states (New York, Nebraska, and Indiana). CSCCE continues to work with states to develop policies to better support the ECE workforce, and will publish cross-state findings in the upcoming academic year.

Social Media and Website Activity

This year, CSCCE joined Facebook and expanded our use of Twitter. To date, we have 1,352 Facebook likes and a reach of over 200,000. We have sent almost 900 tweets with 295 followers. Follow us @CSCCEUCB &

Worthy Wage Day Twitter Storm

On Worthy Wage Day, May 1st, 2015, CSCCE planned a #WorthyWages Twitter storm to highlight the importance of quality wages for early childhood educators.

Worthy Wage Day, established in 1992, is a national day of action to raise public awareness of:

  • The low wages earned by early childhood educators
  • Their negative impact on program quality and the adverse consequences for  children's well-being
  • The need for major restructuring in how we finance early care and education in order to achieve livable, equitable and dependable wages for early childhood teachers that does not come at the expense of the urgent economic needs of families

Supporters of early childhood educators used the hashtag #WorthyWages on Twitter and Facebook resulting in:

  • 1,399 posts with the #WorthyWages
  • 469 users participating
  • 1,297,925 people reached

We've had tremendous traffic to our website this year! See below for stats:

CSCCE Home Page


Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages Page


Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages Report Downloads


Building a Skilled Teacher Workforce


Strengthening the Math-Related Teaching Practices of the Early Care and Education Workforce: Insights From Experts


Worthy Wage Day Twitter Storm


Grants for the 2014/2015 year:

  • Birth to Five Policy Alliance
    • Early Childhood Higher Education Inventory: Data to Action
  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation
    • Research and Policy Activities on the Early Care and Education Workforce
    • Designing 21st Century Higher Education Programs for Early Care and Education Practitioners
  • Heising-Simons Foundation
    • Key Ingredients: Better Preparation, Reward, and Support for Early Childhood Teachers
  • Foundation for Child Development
    • State of the Early Childhood Workforce
  • W. Clement and Jessie V. Stone Foundation
    • General Operating Support

Selected CSCCE presentations for the 2014/2015 academic year:

California State Advisory Council on Early Learning and Care
Director Marcy Whitebook attended the California State Advisory Council Early Learning and Care meeting in Sacramento on January 13, 2015. She presented on the Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages report.

The CAYL Institute
Director Marcy Whitebook and Specialist Lea J.E. Austin were invited presenters for the CAYL Institute of Massachusetts conference on Supporting Nontraditional Students to Achieve Education Success on January 14-15, 2015.

Francis Family Foundation
Director Marcy Whitebook and Specialist Lea J.E. Austin were invited presenters for the annual Board of Directors meeting of the Francis Family Foundation on Early Childhood Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities on January 22, 2015.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Director Marcy Whitebook and Specialist Lea J.E. Austin were invited presenters for the Office of Child Care in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages that discussed the status of the early childhood workforce.

DREME Network Meeting
CSCCE Director Marcy Whitebook, presented “Strengthening the Math Related Teaching Practices of the Early Care and Education Workforce” to the DREME Network at Stanford University.

First 5 California Pre-Summit/CSP Annual Meeting: 2015 Child Health, Education, and Care Summit
Specialist Lea J.E. Austin presented “California's Early Childhood Workforce” in Sacramento for the First 5 California Pre-Summit/CSP Annual Meeting.

Head Start National Conference, Research Symposium

Specialist Lea J.E. Austin was an invited speaker at the Head Start National Conference, Research Symposium and presented on Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages.

CSCCE Publications for the 2014/2015 academic year:


  • Building a skilled teacher workforce: Shared and divergent challenges in early care and education and in grades K-12 prepared by Marcy Whitebook for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2014
  • Strengthening the math-related teaching practices of the early care and education workforce: Insights from experts by Sharon Ryan, Marcy Whitebook, and Deborah Cassidy
  • Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Early Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study by Marcy Whitebook, Deborah Phillips, and Carollee Howes
  • Yes They Can: Supporting Bachelor Degree Attainment for Early Childhood Practitionersby Laura Sakai, Fran Kipnis, Marcy Whitebook, and Diana Schaack


Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics

During 2014-15 CWED Co-Chair Sylvia Allegretto received funding from the Ford Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation to continue her work on the subminimum wage paid to tipped workers.
Co-Chair Allegretto also published on article in the Monthly Labor Review: "Teacher Staffing and Pay Differences: Public and Private Schools."

Policy Briefs & Publications

The Proposed Minimum Wage Law for Los Angeles: Economic Impacts and Policy Options
Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry, March 2015

The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the Banking Industry. UC Berkeley Labor Center Policy Brief, October 2014
Sylvia A. Allegretto, Ken Jacobs, Dave Graham-Squire and Megan Emiko Scott

The Mayor of Los Angeles' Proposed City Minimum Wage Policy: A Prospective Impact Study
Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry, September 2014 (CWED Brief #2014-05)

San Francisco's Proposed City Minimum Wage Law: A Prospective Impact Study
Michael Reich, Ken Jacobs, Annette Bernhardt and Ian Perry, August 2014 (CWED Brief #2014-04)

Joint Activities with the Economic Policy Institute

In July 2014, CWED issued a joint release of a CWED and the Economic Policy Institute briefing:
Twenty-Three Years and Still Waiting for Change: Why It's Time to Give Tipped Workers the Regular Minimum Wage, by Sylvia A. Allegretto and David Cooper.
Additionally EPI hosted a panel in Washington DC on July 23 to discuss the tipped minimum wage, and CWED Co-Chair Sylvia A. Allegretto presented the results from the paper.

Expert Testimony, 2014-15

Co-Chair Allegretto testified in Sacramento on behalf of Senator Leno's SB 935 to increase the state's minimum wage ultimately to $13. On behalf of Assembly Member Luis Alejo, California Legislature Assembly Resolution No. 1011 commended Co-Chair Allegretto for her work on behalf of California's workers and their families.

Allegretto was also interviewed by the UC Berkeley Campus NewsCenter regarding the tipped minimum wage:

Institute for Research on Labor and Employment Library

Library Forms Data Working Group

In summer 2014 the Library was charged with forming the IRLE Data Working Group. The goal of the group is to work, both formally and informally, to improve the data storage infrastructure for the entire institute. Members include IT Manager Robert Hiramoto, the Library staff and all of the data users who have long term storage needs. The ultimate goals of the group remain concise: to facilitate data storage and archiving, improve long term access to data including the capability to provide data replication for published works, and to assess data backup costs and to find ways to reduce the ongoing expense of data backup. Library staff will also establish a “Finding Aid” that will list all data housed at IRLE.

Data Storage Array Launched

In May 2015, the IRLE Data Working Group launched a new, high volume storage array, which will enable all data users to store their data centrally and to enjoy ample storage space for long-term data acquisition and management. The storage array already has received data from several users and will continue to do so throughout summer 2015. In fall 2015 the group will begin a review of current backup strategies.

Data Acquisitions by the Library

Wage studies have played a central in IRLE's research in recent years. In response, throughout the 2014-15 year Library Operations Manager Janice Kimball acquired workforce data from local jurisdictions. These include Alameda County, the City of Berkeley, the City of San Francisco, and Santa Clara County. These data have been added to the data storage array for continued access.

The Library Commons and Collections

The Library Commons continues to be used as a flexible study space by scholars and students.  It is also an appealing site for radio and video interviews, both live and taped. A number of scholars have conducted longer-term projects within the space as a helpful alternative to other study spaces available to them.
The Library's print and digital collections saw steady use, with circulation holding steady in comparison with 2013-14. Course reserves remain an important service to the broader campus, with 49 coursed being served and 41 titles being held on reserve. Students frequently copy and scan materials from the Library's collection. Hard-to-locate periodicals, typically covering the years prior to 1978, were the source of greater interest. Work Related Abstracts, which ceased publication before the turn of the century was used by one research group to discover articles covering human resources practices throughout the 1950s, 60s and 70s. 

One intriguing trend emerged in fall 2014 and has been sustained since then: a heightened interest in union contract language. The Library hosts two repositories of digitized contracts as well as print collections which are not easily retrievable. Therefore referrals play an important role in reference service having to do with contract language. Interest covered the full spectrum of patrons, ranging from private law firms to government agencies, and from academics to members of the Labor and arbitration communities.

Electronic Outreach

The Library increased its roster of institutions that follow IRLE on social media: IRLE's followers on Twitter tripled in number during 2014-15. This follows national trends as most policy institutes use Twitter far more than Facebook to generate hits on their websites and to stimulate social media sharing. Both the Institute and Library feeds are gain new followers as content is added. To maximize impact the Library has launched a twice-weekly posting schedule on both platforms, with news about IRLE colloquia and conferences generating the largest increase in interest and traffic.  

In March 2015 the IRLE Library adopted the Libguides platform to consolidate its subject guides. All guides have been updated and more topics have been added. LibGuides is a content management system that is similar to a blog, and thus can be updated constantly.

IRLE eNews continues to be edited by IRLE Librarian Terry Huwe, and the institute's mailing lists are overseen by both Janice Kimball and Terry Huwe. We plan to review operations of the mailing lists during the coming academic year, and we will coordinate the review with a study of further uses of social media.

Web Administration

Library staff oversee all public Web services for IRLE, led by Elizabeth del Rocio Camacho. Traffic on IRLE sites, particularly the Labor Center, has been growing dramatically each year, and 2014-15 was no exception.  Elizabeth designed and launched an all-new site for the Labor Center on a commercial Web hosting service, in order to provide additional content management services to the rapidly growing program. The Labor Center's publications (together with CWED and IRLE's publications) are the most sought after documents on the Web. It is now common for new publications to receive many thousands of downloads on the day of their release. Total page downloads from the IRLE Web exceeded nine million during the 2014-15 academic year (year to date, June 2, 2015).

Presentations and Professional Activities of IRLE Librarian

IRLE Librarian Terry Huwe was invited to give a presentation at Internet Librarian International, a global conference that was held in London on October 21 and 22, 2014. The title of his presentation is “Big Data and the Library: A New Role for Information Professionals?” Terry also was a presenter at the Computers in Libraries conference, which was held April 28-30, 2015 in Washington, DC. Once again he discussed Big Data opportunities for libraries, emphasizing developments specific to the United States. Terry publishes a monthly column in Computers in Libraries magazine, which has a global circulation. The column's topic is “Building Digital Libraries.”

Terry currently serves as Chair of the Affiliated Libraries Administrative Group, which is comprised of campus libraries that report to deans, directors and department chairs as opposed to the University Librarian. The goal of the group is to ensure that all information services at the Berkeley campus maintain close collaborative ties. He also serves on the University Library’s Cataloging and Metadata Council, and the Social Sciences Selectors Council.


Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy

Energy Foundation Grant for State Climate Policy

The Don Vial Center received a $300,000 grant from the Energy Foundation to research the job impacts of state climate and clean energy initiatives to meet the state's ambitious AB 32 goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The team developed a model to forecast job impacts related to energy efficiency and renewable energy policies given specific scenarios. The Don Vial Center also provided technical assistance to inform energy efficiency policy development and convened and participated in forums to bring together labor, environmental justice, and equity groups to explore potential areas of alignment and collaboration. This work helps to inform ways to create good jobs and broaden opportunities for low-income Californians in conjunction with establishing California's post-2020 greenhouse gas emission reduction targets, and supports the ongoing implementation of state climate and clean energy policies and programs.


Environmental and Economic Benefits of Building Solar in California
Peter Philips, November 2014

Policy and legislative action at both the federal and state levels has stimulated California's recent renewable-energy electricity-generation boom. This report examines the current and potential emissions averted by newly-constructed utility-scale solar farms in California. It calculates the new construction, maintenance and operations jobs created by these recent projects along with the upstream and downstream jobs stimulated by this construction. The report estimates the income, health-insurance and pension benefits of this new utility-scale solar farm construction and subsequent plant operation and maintenance jobs, calculates the training investments made as a result of these projects, estimates the impact of training on lifetime earnings of new workers, and presents case studies of four new apprentice workers employed on these projects. Finally, the report looks at the federal, state, and industry policies that made this solar boom possible and recommends four key policy actions to continue building on California's leadership in creating high-quality jobs while decarbonizing the energy sector.

Jobs and Investments to Achieve Zero Net Energy in MUSH Sector Buildings in the SoCalREN Territory
Megan Emiko Scott, Betony Jones and Carol Zabin, December 2014

This brief estimates the investment needed, and the jobs this investment would generate, to achieve zero net energy in all Municipal, University, School, and Hospital (MUSH) sector buildings in the Southern California Regional Energy Network (SoCalREN) territory. SoCalREN is a ratepayer-funded program regulated by the California Public Utilities Commission and serving public agencies and their constituents in the Southern California Edison and Southern California Gas Company service territories. This report was carried out at the request of the SoCalREN and its workforce development partner, Emerald Cities Collaborative, whose mission is to both reduce the region's energy consumption and create quality jobs and job opportunities for residents in the region.

Proposition 39 Implementation

The Don Vial Center provided ongoing technical assistance to the state Labor Agency and the California Energy Commission to implement the jobs and workforce reporting requirements for Proposition 39-funded projects. Proposition 39 directs up to $550 million per year for five years from the state General Fund to the Clean Energy Job Creation Fund for energy efficiency and clean energy projects at California's K-12 public schools and community colleges.

State Workforce Investment Board and Green Collar Jobs Council

Carol Zabin, Green Collar Jobs Council (GCJC) chair and California Workforce Investment Board appointee, continues to lead the GCJC's work to encourage decision makers to implement jobs and workforce development recommendations for state investments in energy efficiency, clean energy and carbon reduction.


Carol Zabin moderated a climate policy panel at the Reducing Inequality in a Sustainable World conferenceon March 5, 2015. The conference brought together academics, practitioners, and policymakers to discuss solutions to address inequality and poverty while increasing environmental sustainability, and was sponsored by the UC Berkeley Institute of Urban and Regional Development and the Institute for Research on Labor and Employment. Read more here.

Carol Zabin spoke at theDecarbonizing California: 2020–2050 conference in Los Angeles on November 17, 2014 to discuss how the state can meet its ambitious 2050 climate targets while creating good jobs for Californians and growing the economy.